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HARPER COLLEGE LffiRARY 

Algonquin & Roselle Roads 

Palatine, Illinois 60067 



& 



wtilzu IN U.S.A. 



The Story of 

The university of 

CHICAGO 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



THE BAKER & TAYLOR COMPANY 
NEW YORK 



THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
LONDON 



THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA 
TOKYO, OSAKA, KYOTO, FUKUOKA, SENDAI 



THE MISSION BOOK COMPANY 
SHANGHAI 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 



http://www.archive.org/details/storyofuniversitOOthom 




President Ernest DeJVitt Burton 



The Story of 

The University 
OF Chicago 

189 o-i 925 

By Thomas Wakefield Goodspeed 




tCfje ^nibergitp of Chicago tresis! 

CHICAGO 






Copyright 1925 By 
The University of Chicago 



All Rights Reserved 



Published February 1925 



Composed and Printed By 

The University of Chicago Press 

Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. 



49653 



HARPER COLLEGE LfBRARV 
PALATINE. ILLniOJS 60067 



TO THE MEMORY OF 

WILLIAM RAINEY HARPER 

FIRST PRESIDENT 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 



MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

From the Incorporation of the University 
September lOy i8go 

Trevor Arnett, 1916-22. 

Charles F. Axelson, 1923 — . 

Joseph M. Bailey, 1890-95.* 

Jesse A. Baldwin, i 896-1921.* 

Adolphus C. Bartlett, 1900-1922.* 

Enos M. Barton, 1898-1916.* 

E. Nelson Blake, 1890-93. Died, 1921. 

William Scott Bond, 1922 — . 

Charles C. Bowen, i 890-1900.* 

William B. Brayton, i 891-1900.* 

Ernest D. Burton, 1923 — . 

Elmer L. Corthell, 1890-96. Died, 1916. 

Frederic A. Delano, 1913-14. 

J. Spencer Dickerson, 1909-14; 1916-19; 1921 — . 

Thomas E. Donnelley, 1909 — . 

Eli B. Felsenthal, 1890 — . 

Frederick T. Gates, i 896-1910. 

Harry B. Gear, 1924 — . 

Charles W. Gilkey, 1919 — . 

Edward Goodman, 1890-1909. Died, 191 1. 

Thomas W. Goodspeed, June 27, 1893 — October 31, 1893; 1896- 

98; 1901-2; 1906-7; 1907-14. 
Howard G. Grey, 1900 — . 
David Gilbert Hamilton, i 893-1915.* 
William Rainey Harper, i 890-1906.* 
Francis E. Hinckley, 1890-96. Died, 1900. 
Charles R. Holden, 191 2 — . 
William H. Holden, i 894-1900. Died, 1922. 
Charles E. Hughes, 1914 — . 

* Died during term of office. 

«^[ vii ]4> 



^[ viii ]4> 



J. Otis Humphrey, 191 4-1 8.* 

Charles L. Hutchinson, i 890-1924.* 

Samuel C. Jennings, 1923 — . 

Harry Pratt Judson, 1907-23. 

Herman H. Kohlsaat, i 890-1 901. Died, 1924. 

Robert P. Lamont, 1923 — . 

Frank H. Lindsay, 1923 — . 

Frank O. Lowden, 1905-12. 

Isaac W. Maclay, 1900-1905. Died, 1908. 

Frank J. Llewellyn, 1902-8. 

Harold F. McCormick, 1899 — . 

Andrew MacLeish, i 890-1924. 

Franklin MacVeagh, 1901-13. 

J. W. MiDGLEY, 1890-93. Died, 1922. 

Charles W. Needham, 1890-91. 

Alonzo K. Parker, i 890-1901. 

Francis W. Parker, 1901-22.* 

Ferdinand W. Peck, i 890-1 900. Died, 1924. 

George A. Pillsbury, 1890-94. Died, 1898. 

WiLBER E. Post, 1919 — . 

John D. Rockefeller, Jr., i 898-1910. 

Julius Rosenwald, 191 2 — . 

Henry A. Rust, 1890-94; 1905-7. Died, 1911. 

Edward L. Ryerson, Jr., 1923 — . 

Martin A. Ryerson, 1890 — . 

Robert L. Scott, 1912 — . 

Albert W. Sherer, 1922 — . 

Daniel L. Shorey, 1890-99.* 

Deloss C. Shull, 1922 — . 

Frederick A. Smith, 1890-1919.* 

WiLLARD A. Smith, 1894-1923. Died, 1923. 

John Stuart, 1924 — . 

Harold H. Swift, 19 14- 



George C. Walker, i 890-1905.* 
5HT0N Williams, 1893-97. 

* Died during term of office. 



"PREFACE- 



THIS is a book born out of due time. It is 
written in the midst of the opening events of 
a new era in the life of the University. A 
great program of advance has been inaugurated. New 
and interesting events are happening every month. 
The University of tomorrow promises to be a very 
different thing from that of which the story is told in 
this book. If the publication could have been deferred 
two or three years, there is every indication that the 
record of those years would add many interesting 
details to the story. But it has been felt that a brief 
history of the University would be of interest and 
value at just this time, and I was asked to write it 
because of my long connection with the educational 
work which has culminated in the present University 
of Chicago. 

That connection goes back nearly sixty-five years. 
I was a student in the first University of Chicago from 
1859 to 1862. In 1873, when a pastor in Chicago, I 
was elected a member of the board of trustees of the 
Baptist Union Theological Seminary, which is now 

^[ixl4> 



the Divinity School of the University. In 1876 I be- 
came the financial secretary and later the recording 
secretary of that board, continuing in these positions 
until 1889. 

The first University of Chicago graduated its last 
class and came to an end in 1886. I became intimate- 
ly associated with all the steps that led in 1889-90 to 
the founding of the present University of Chicago. 
I was made secretary of the board of trustees of the 
new institution and continued in that position for 
nearly twenty-three years, until my retirement, at the 
age of seventy, in 191 2. I was then made correspond- 
ing secretary, with no duties except such as might be 
assigned to me by President Judson. He soon called 
on me, greatly to my surprise, to write a history of the 
University. 

I therefore wrote what turned out to be a large 
book, more than four times the size of this small vol- 
ume. It covered the first quarter-century of the Uni- 
versity's life and was published in 191 6 in connection 
with the Quarter-Centennial Celebration. 

This connection of sixty-five years with the edu- 
cational work which has had such extraordinary de- 
velopment was thought to give me some sort of prep- 
aration for writing this book. Dean Gordon J. Laing, 
general editor of the University Press, asked me, 
therefore, to prepare a small volume bringing the 
record down to the present time. This book has been 



^[ xl ]4> 



prepared for the students and alumni and others in- 
terested, and put into so small a compass as to invite 
a full reading. It is, however, a comprehensive, though 
brief, record, and its statements may be depended on 
as fully as if they were authenticated by frequent 
quotations from original documents. But as it is short 
and written somewhat informally, it is called, not a 
History, but a Story. 

My son Charles T. B. Goodspeed has given me 
invaluable assistance in every way, and J. Spencer 
Dickerson, secretary of the board of trustees for the 
past twelve years, has read the proof with advantage 
to the text. Mr. Laing has taken much pains in pro- 
viding the illustrations, which are, perhaps, the most 
attractive feature of the book. 



Thomas Wakefield Goodspeed 



Chicago 
February i, 1925 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I. Beginnings i 

II. Mr. Rockefeller Opens the Way .... 13 

III. The First Million Dollars 24 

IV. The First President 37 

V. President Harper Plans a University ... 51 

VI. The College Becomes a University . . . 6^ 

VII. Students Apply and a Faculty Is Secured . 76 

VIII. The University Begins to Build .... 89 

IX. The Opening Year 102 

X. The Struggle with the Deficit 116 

XI. The University Continues to Build . . , 128 

XII. New Steps in Expansion 140 

XIII. Some Interesting Buildings 153 

XIV. Some Important Events 164 

XV. Progress under President Judson .... 176 

XVI. The Buildings of President Judson's Adminis- 
tration 191 

XVII. The University's Unfolding Life .... 203 
XVIII. President Burton and the New Program of 

Advance 217 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

President Ernest DeWitt Burton {Frontispiece) ^^^ 

John D. Rockefeller 14 

Martin A. Ryerson 24 

President William Rainey Harper 38 

RosENWALD Hall and Walker Museum 76 

The Women's Halls 90 

Hull Court 128 

Harper Library and the Law Building 140 

The Tower Group 154 

President Harry Pratt Judson 176 

Ida No yes Hall 184 

Chicago House, Luxor, Egypt 186 

Harold H. Swift 204 

Theology Building 210 

The Chapel 218 

Interior of the Chapel 228 



^[xv]4> 



I 

"BEgiNNINgS 



THE plainest record of the origin, rise, and de- 
velopment through its first third of a century 
of the University of Chicago sounds like an 
educational romance. It might have come out of the 
Arabian Nights. But, although it has all the elements 
of a romance, it is a true tale. The University itself, 
with its faculty, its students, its buildings, its re- 
sources, and its alumni is the eloquent witness of the 
truth of the story. It is not the creation of any lamp 
of Aladdin; but men of the generation preceding its 
birth labored and the University entered into their 
labors. It grew out of a soil made rich and produc- 
tive by earlier institutions. 

Among these institutions was the first University 
of Chicago. There was such an institution quite dis- 
tinct from and antedating by thirty-four years the 
present University. It was established under the 
same religious auspices and bore the same name. It 
originated in a grant by Senator Stephen A. Douglas, 
in 1856, of about ten acres of land "for a site for a 
university in the city of Chicago." This site was on 



the west side of Cottage Grove Avenue, a little north 
of Thirty-fifth Street. 

Dr. J. C. Burroughs was elected president; a four- 
story stone building, the south wing of what was in- 
tended to be a monumental structure, was erected, 
and the work of instruction in the new building was 
begun in September, 1859. ^^^ central part of the 
building was begun in 1863-64. It was large and im- 
posing, with a lofty tower in front and the Dearborn 
Observatory in the rear. Before it was fully com- 
pleted the institution had become so burdened with 
debt that building operations were suspended, never 
to be resumed. The University suffered from a series 
of public calamities, which, combined with internal 
dissensions, finally brought its useful career to an end. 
The panic of 1857 destroyed the value of its first large 
subscription. The Civil War of 1861-65 made finan- 
cial progress impossible for a number of years. The 
great fire of 187 1, followed by the panic of 1873 and 
the second big fire of 1874, completed its financial 
ruin, though it continued its struggle for existence 
twelve years after this last disaster. Notwithstanding 
this unfortunate fiscal history the old University had 
an interesting and fruitful educational career. Many 
of the most distinguished citizens of Chicago were 
members of its board of trustees. Senator Douglas 
was the first president of the board and was succeeded 
by William B. Ogden. Following Dr. J. C. Burroughs 



Ms ]^ 

in the presidency of the institution were Senator James 
R. Doolittle, Dr. Lemuel Moss, Alonzo Abernethy, 
Dr. Galusha Anderson, and Dr. George C. Lorimer. 
In April, 1886, the trustees elected to the presidency 
Dr. William R. Harper, later president of the present 
University of Chicago. Seeing no hope for the future 
of the institution. Dr. Harper declined the position 
and a few months later, in June, 1886, the educational 
work of the first University of Chicago was discon- 
tinued. Measured by present-day universities it had 
always been a small school. It had medical and law 
departments, a preparatory school, and college, but 
during the entire twenty-eight years of its educational 
work it did not enrol above five thousand students in 
all its departments. 

But it had good teachers and served its students 
well. From its college classes 312 graduates were sent 
out. From among them rose capitalists, bankers, edi- 
tors, ministers, missionaries, lawyers, professors, 
judges, presidents of colleges, men and women suc- 
cessful, some of them eminent, in all the activities of 
life. 

The first University of Chicago was not a large in- 
stitution. It had a troubled history. But it produced 
a profound conviction that Chicago was the predes- 
tined seat of a great institution of learning and the 
inextinguishable desire and unalterable purpose that 
a new university, built on more secure foundations 



M 4]^ 

and offering greater and better facilities, should suc- 
ceed the old one. It was this interest and this desire 
and this purpose that, when the time came and the 
call for offerings was made, brought so great a re- 
sponse. The first University was an essential factor 
among the forces, the conjunction of which prepared 
the way for and eventually combined to create the 
present University. 

Another of these factors, not less important than 
the first, was the Baptist Union Theological Semi- 
nary, which is now the Divinity School of the Uni- 
versity. This school opened in the fall of 1867. The 
number of students was small for a number of years 
and the financial resources very slight. The classes 
were accommodated in the University lecture-rooms. 
The two institutions, had they consulted the state of 
their treasuries and their financial prospects, would 
have occupied the University buildings together for 
an indefinite period. The colossal nature of the blun- 
der committed by the University in erecting its main 
building, and thus incurring debts that finally crushed 
it, had not, at this time, 1867, become apparent. It 
was in the full tide of success, with a magnificent new 
building, the confidence and generous co-operation of 
Chicago, and an apparently splendid future. The 
Baptists of the city were prosperous. Their churches 
were growing. They were proud of their educational 
institutions and looked forward to a great and influ- 



ential future. It was not to be thought of, therefore, 
that the new Seminary should not have a building of 
its own. Before the work of instruction began archi- 
tects were employed. The trustees were prudent men, 
and it must be said for them that they fully intended 
to build so modestly that there would be no question 
about their ability to finance the enterprise. Four 
months after the opening of the work of instruction, 
plans for a building were submitted which the trustees 
were assured would cost ^36,500. This sum, it was 
felt, could be raised. The trustees, indeed, subscribed 
most of it themselves, and the building was erected. 
When it was finished the cost was found to be $60,000. 
Desperate efforts were made to raise the money, but 
in the end it became necessary to issue bonds to the 
amount of $30,000, bearing interest at the current 
rate of 8 per cent! The erection of this building was 
almost as fatal to the Seminary as the building of 
Douglas Hall was to the University. The debt hung 
round its neck like the old man of the sea for twenty 
years, all the time threatening its life. It finally be- 
came impossible to meet the current expenses. Under 
these circumstances the trustees accepted an offer of 
lands and a building at Morgan Park, which, now a 
part of Chicago, was then a suburb thirteen miles 
southwest of the business center of the city, and the 
Seminary was transferred to the new location in 1877, 
just ten years after the beginning of its work. It was 



^[ 6 ]4> 

then that my intimate connection with this story be- 
gan. I became the financial and recording secretary 
of the board of trustees. Instead of continuing this 
relation for a very brief period, as I intended, I be- 
came more and more involved in the developments 
which followed and after forty-seven years am not yet 
entirely released. It was during the first ten years of 
this period that the permanent endowment of the 
Seminary, amounting to above ^250,000, was secured. 
Two great friends and patrons appeared, E. Nelson 
Blake and John D. Rockefeller. Mr. Rockefeller be- 
came interested in the work of the Seminary in the 
early eighties. For nine years he served as vice-presi- 
dent of the Theological Union. He rivaled Mr. Blake 
in his contributions, continuing these from 1882 until 
the union of the Seminary with the new University in 
1892. It was during these years that I became ac- 
quainted with him and conceived the hope that 
through him a new university would come to Chicago. 

The Theological Seminary was fortunate in having 
at its head during the twenty-five years of its inde- 
pendent existence that great teacher. Dr. G. W. 
Northrup. Dr. William R. Harper was called to the 
chair of Hebrew on January i, 1879, ^^^ developed 
those extraordinary teaching and administrative gifts 
which made him, a few years later, president of the 
new University. 

At Morgan Park the attendance of students in the 



Seminary reached 190 in 1 891-92. During the twenty- 
five years of its history as a separate school it enrolled 
above 900. At the end of that period, the Old Univer- 
sity having been succeeded by the new University of 
Chicago, the Seminary became the Divinity School of 
the University and entered on a new career. As one 
who knows I can assure the reader that the Theologi- 
cal Seminary was not created and sustained and part- 
ly endowed by rubbing the lamp of Aladdin and voic- 
ing pious wishes, but by hard and sometimes heart- 
breaking work which culminated, at last, happily in 
the new University. 

The entire history of the Seminary emphasized the 
conviction of the importance of Chicago as an educa- 
tional center. The men having its interests in charge 
realized more profoundly than anyone else could do 
the greatness of the loss of the Old University. That 
institution had been the preliminary training-school 
for large numbers of its students. It needed beyond 
measure such a training-school to prepare students for 
its classes. A new university was felt by all its friends, 
and most of all by its officers of administration, to be 
indispensable to its highest usefulness. To them, it 
was a thing not to be thought of that there should not 
exist a college or university in immediate proximity 
to the Theological Seminary. They gave themselves, 
therefore, to the founding of a new university with a 
determination that no one else could feel. This inter- 



^[ 8 ]4> 



est and purpose were controlling factors in forwarding 
the movement for the new institution. And a great 
constituency ready to follow where they led was be- 
hind the Seminary and its friends. 

But it was not institutions alone that were impor- 
tant factors in preparing the way for the University. 
There were men who were not merely important, but 
essential, factors in that preparation. It goes without 
saying that chief among these was John Davison 
Rockefeller. He was one of those men who change his- 
tory. It fell to him to alter for the better the future of 
mankind; not through his business successes, save as 
these were one condition of all that followed, but 
through his philanthropies, which extend round the 
world, and are so organized that they will continue to 
influence, and, in ever widening circles, to bless the 
human race. To say the least that can be said, our 
race will be a healthier, a more intelligent, and there- 
fore a happier race because he lived. When, on No- 
vember 8, 1892, the board of trustees "voted unani- 
mously that, in recognition of the fact that the Uni- 
versity owes its existence and its endowment to Mr. 
Rockefeller, the words 'Founded by John D. Rocke- 
feller* be printed in all official publications and letter- 
heads under the name of the University, and be put 
upon the Seal," it expressed far less than the full truth. 
Other institutions have been founded by some par- 
ticular man. They might have been founded by some 



other man just as well. But there was no other man to 
do for the University of Chicago what Mr. Rockefeller 
did for it. Without him an educational institution of 
some kind might have been established, but nothing 
resembling the University of Chicago. For bringing 
that institution into existence he was the one essential 
man. 

When the Old University of Chicago discontinued 
its work in 1886, Mr. Rockefeller was not only the 
wealthiest man among American Baptists, but also 
their most liberal contributor to education. It was 
therefore inevitable that people of that faith in Chi- 
cago who felt humiliated over the loss of their Uni- 
versity and profoundly interested in the rehabiHta- 
tion of their educational work should turn to him in 
their adversity and entreat his assistance. In doing 
this it fell to me to speak for them for the first two 
and a half years. I had become acquainted with Mr. 
Rockefeller in 1882 in connection with my work for 
the Theological Seminary. I had met him frequently 
and, as he became a generous contributor to the Semi- 
nary, had occasion to write him many letters. I had 
become deeply concerned about the Old University, 
which in the spring of 1886 was staggering to its fall. 
In April of that year I began a series of letters to Mr. 
Rockefeller continuing through thirty months on the 
subject of a new university for Chicago and soliciting 
his help in founding it. He answered all these letters 



^[ lo ]4> 



in the kindest way, never indeed making any prom- 
ises, but never shutting the door of hope completely. 

During all this time Mr. Rockefeller was being 
strongly urged by his honored friend President A. H. 
Strong, of the Rochester Theological Seminary, to 
establish a university in the city of New York. I was 
writing in behalf of Chicago quite unconscious of this 
very powerful contrary influence. 

While these things were going on, an event had 
happened of the first importance in its relation to the 
future University of Chicago. The American Baptist 
Education Society — the organization through which 
Mr. Rockefeller was destined to act in the founding of 
the University — had been organized. This Society 
played an essential part in preparing the way for the 
coming of the University. It was organized by a con- 
vention representing thirty-six states which con- 
vened in the city of Washington, May i6, 1888. 

One of the first steps of the executive board of the 
new Society was also one of the most important, in 
its relation to the founding and history of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, that the board was destined ever 
to take. It appointed the Rev. Frederick T. Gates, 
then of Minneapolis, Minnesota, corresponding secre- 
tary of the Society. Mr. Gates was pastor of the Cen- 
tral Baptist Church, Minneapolis. He closed a suc- 
cessful service in 1888 to undertake to raise an endow- 
ment for Pillsbury Academy, a Baptist school in Min- 



<l^[ II ]4> 

nesota. Having secured this in an astonishingly short 
time, Mr. Gates was offered, but had not accepted, 
the principalship of the Academy. He was a young 
man, only thirty-five years of age. His eight years in 
the ministry had been spent in the West. Little did 
those who now appointed him corresponding secre- 
tary of the new Education Society understand the 
extraordinary abilities of their appointee. 

The organization of the Education Society and the 
appointment of Dr. Gates greatly encouraged us at 
Chicago. We believed it to be a step toward the reali- 
zation of our hopes. At the same time many anxieties 
oppressed our minds. Many questions occurred to us. 
What would the new Society do? What attitude 
would Dr. Gates assume toward Chicago ^ Would he 
see the situation as we saw it and give us his powerful 
help.^ I give the answer to these questions in the fol- 
lowing quotation from the introduction Dr. Gates 
wrote in 19 1 6 to my History of the University of Chicago: 

The writer was made secretary of the new society on its or- 
ganization in Washington. I knew nothing of any movement to 
found a college or university at Chicago. I did not know that Dr. 
Goodspeed had been in correspondence with Mr. Rockefeller; 
I did not know that Mr. Rockefeller had made up his mind that 
the founding of a college or university at Chicago was important, 
and that he would assist in the enterprise. I knew only that the 
old University at Chicago had come to its death in spite of every 
effort to keep it alive, and that the friends of education in the 
West were profoundly discouraged. With no prepossessions in fa- 



^[ 12 ]4> 



vor of Chicago and consulting with no one, I immediately began 
a careful, independent study of Baptist educational interests, north 
and south, east and west, and covering all the Baptist academies, 
colleges, and theological seminaries in the United States, their lo- 
cation, equipment, endowment, attendance. I sought to ascer- 
tain the laws governing the growth of educational institutions; 1 
examined particularly the question of location, in its relation to 
patronage, financial stabihty, wise management. This study in- 
volved correspondence with all Baptist institutions in the United 
States, and it was pursued with very close application daily for 
many months before I had reached conclusions which I thought 
secure. 

I speak of these studies because it was these that disclosed to 
me with overwhelming evidential power that the first great edu- 
cational need of Baptists was to found a powerful institution of 
learning, not in New York nor in Washington, but in the city of 
Chicago, and not in a suburb outside the city, but within the city 
itself and as near its center as might be conveniently possible. 
When I had reached these conclusions I wrote a paper stating the 
grounds of them, and read this paper to the Baptist ministers of 
Chicago, on their invitation, on October 15, 1888. 

By the kindness of Drs. Goodspeed and Harper this paper, 
somewhat revised and improved, was placed in Mr. Rockefeller's 
hands and by him, as I later learned, read with approval. I find 
it in his files. Mr. Rockefeller began to make inquiries about the 
Education Society and to disclose an interest in its organization 
and prospects. He saw at that time in the infant society a pos- 
sible means of breaking the deadlock in which he found the con- 
flicting denominational interests. 

When Dr. Gates reached this momentous decision 
the battle for Chicago was practically won. The way 
was open to advance. 



II 

eJ^i?. 1ipCKEFELLE1^0PE:A(S 
THE WAT 



IN WRITING this story I have the advantage of a 
knowledge of the very details of the founding of 
the University. The very earliest steps can be 
traced. For the most part the facts are found in a 
series of letters written by those immediately inter- 
ested in the enterprise. These letters, several hundred 
in number, were carefully collected from widely sepa- 
rated files, copied, and the copies placed in my hands. 
In my larger history there are very liberal quotations 
from these letters. In this story there is room for one 
or two only. 

Dr. Harper, who was deeply interested in our 
hopes for a new university, had left the Theological 
Seminary at Morgan Park in 1886 and become a pro- 
fessor in Yale. 

In the autumn of 1888, three months after my last 
letter to Mr. Rockefeller on the subject of a university 
for Chicago, like lightning out of a clear sky, or rather 
like the dawn of a glorious day after a long, dark 
night, there came to me from Dr. Harper the follow- 
ing epoch-marking message: 

<^[ 13 ]# 



M 14 ]^ 

New Haven, Conn. 

October 13, 1888 
Dr. T. W. Goodspeedy Morga?i Parky Illinois 

My Dear Friend: I spent last Sunday at Vassar College. (I 
am to be there every other Sunday during the year.) Much to my 
surprise Mr. Rockefeller was there. He had reached Poughkeepsie 
Saturday night. What his purpose in going to Vassar was is not 
quite certain. He seemed to have nothing to do there except to 
talk with me. Whether he knew that I was going there before or 
not is not known to me. I met him at the breakfast table, and he 
at once asked me for an opportunity to talk during the day. The 
result was that when I had finished my morning lecture at ten 
o'clock he joined me and we spent the rest of the day together. 
He expected to remain until Monday, but changed his plans and 
came down to New York with me Sunday night, leaving Pough- 
keepsie at 8:30 and reaching New York at 11:00 p.m. We were 
therefore together the most of the time for thirteen hours. 

Other matters came up, but the chief question was the one of 
the educational problem He stands ready after the holi- 
days to do something for Chicago He showed great inter- 
est in the Education Society, and above all talked for hours in 
reference to the scheme of establishing the great University at 
Chicago instead of in New York. This surprised me very much. 
As soon as I began to see how the matter struck him I pushed it 

and I lost no opportunity of emphasizing this point He 

himself made out a list of reasons why it would be better to go to 
Chicago than to remain in New York. 

Mr. Rockefeller left me with the understanding that he would 
at once communicate with Mr. Colby in reference to the matter 
and led me to infer that the question would receive his careful 
attention at once. 

Now we must not expect too much. We all know how easy it 
is to make a start and then fall back, and so I am building nothing 




John D. Rockefeller 



^[ 15 ]^ 

on this matter. I have thought I would lay the thing before you 
in all its details, in order that you, Dr. Northrup, and myself 

might be able to keep track of both ends of the line I write 

you these particulars in order that you may at once put me into 
possession of the facts in reference to matters at Morgan Park. It 
would be a great pity, if this could be done, to have something so 
much smaller carried out. 

Will you not at once write me ? I remain 

Yours truly, 

W. R. Harper 

The reference in the closing sentences to matters 
at Morgan Park is to proposals which had been made 
to establish a college in that suburb in proximity to 
the Theological Seminary. These proposals were at 
once laid aside in view of the greater plan. 

The significant thing in the letter and the matter 
of historical moment is this, that the suggestion that 
he should assist in founding a university in Chicago 
was made by Mr. Rockefeller. He himself proposed 
that the institution should be established in Chicago 
instead of New York. This greatly surprised Dr. 
Harper, but after Mr. Rockefeller made the sugges- 
tion "he pushed it and lost no opportunity of empha- 
sizing it." Indeed for the six months following this 
interview he lost no opportunity of encouraging Mr. 
Rockefeller to go forward with the project. He was 
so far immediately successful that on November 5, 
18885 three weeks after this first interview, I re- 
ceived a telegram from him, asking me, on Mr. 



^[ i6 ]4> 



Rockefeller's behalf^ to go to New York for an inter- 
view on the subject of a new university in Chicago. 
The following Friday I was in New York. 

It must be borne in mind that Dr. Harper had 
never had in mind anything less than a real univer- 
sity, with college and graduate departments. He had 
impressed this upon me in his letters and took occa- 
sion to do this again in our interview together Friday 
evening. I, on the other hand, had been for more than 
two years asking Mr. Rockefeller's help in founding 
a college. 

We met Mr. Rockefeller Saturday morning at the 
breakfast table. His entire family was present and 
interested in the discussion. I gave such information 
as I could. After a conference of an hour or more, 
Mr. Rockefeller turned to me and said, "Well, Dr. 
Goodspeed, just what would you like to have me do? 
Tell me frankly what is in your mind." Divided be- 
tween the remembrance of my previous very modest 
demands upon him and Dr. Harper's large expecta- 
tions, I compromised, and said: "We would like to 
have you give us $1,500,000, to which we will under- 
take to add from other givers $500,000 more, starting 
the institution on a $2,000,000 basis." Mr. Rocke- 
feller replied to this that the proportion I assigned to 
him was large and closed the conference by adding 
that he would be glad to help in founding an institu- 
tion in Chicago and was disposed to make a contribu- 



M 17 ]4> 

tion of several hundred thousand dollars for the pur- 
pose. 

Before leaving New York I wrote out two or three 
propositions varying in amounts and proportions, and 
sent them to him. On reaching home I received a line 
from him inviting me to take lunch with him. It had 
reached my hotel after I had left for Chicago and had 
been forwarded to me. Meantime it had been borne in 
upon me that I had overreached the mark and asked a 
larger contribution than Mr. Rockefeller was ready, 
at that time, to consider. I therefore wrote him sug- 
gesting that he give $1,000,000 instead of a million 
and a half. Wearing months of waiting followed, Dr. 
Harper's letters continued, telling of interviews, more 
or less encouraging, but without any definite result. 
Early in December a meeting of the executive board 
of the Education Society was held in the city of 
Washington. Dr. Gates submitted an elaborate re- 
port, setting forth his conclusions so convincingly 
that the board approved the effort to establish a 
well-equipped institution in Chicago, and instructed 
the secretary to use every means in his power to 
originate and encourage such a movement. One 
month later we turned over the negotiation to Dr. 
Gates. He is the best historian of what followed and 
I give the story in his words. 

The adoption, by the Executive Board of the American Bap- 
tist Education Society on the evening of December 3, 1888, of 



^[ i8 ]4> 



the plan to establish a college, to be ultimately a university, at 
Chicago, was — in view of Mr. Rockefeller's expressed interest, al- 
ready secured by Dr. Goodspeed, and nourished by Dr. Harper — 
the decisive action which resulted in the founding of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago eighteen months later. The report of this action, 
which I sent immediately to all the Baptist newspapers, was fa- 
vorably received editorially and commanded the approval quite 
evidently of the rank and file of the Baptist denomination in all 
parts of the land. Dr. Harper made a full personal report to Mr. 
Rockefeller, specially emphasizing the unanimity of sentiment 
among men widely representative of the denomination, many of 
whom had prepossessions favorable to Columbian. It is quite evi- 
dent from many things that Mr. Rockefeller's interest in this ac- 
tion was deeply engaged. Almost immediately afterward he sent 
to the treasurer, of his own accord and without solicitation, a con- 
tribution toward the current expenses of the society which some 
months before he had declined. He began to drop hints to Dr. 
Harper and to others that the society might become an authorita- 
tive agency for his educational giving. On a letter of introduction 
from Dr. Harper, he very kindly received me as secretary of the 
society, for a conversation covering the scope and methods of the 
society's proposed work, and invited me to accompany him on the 
same train from New York to Cleveland for further and more de- 
tailed conversation. In these talks, the possibihties of the useful- 
ness of the society to the colleges and academies throughout the 

land were fully discussed On the subject of contribution to 

the Chicago enterprise, which I did not at that time press, Mr. 
Rockefeller was reticent, beyond saying that progress was being 
made in his mind. The general impression he left with me was 
that to his mind the plans for Chicago were not clearly enough 
outlined to justify present action. His practical and cautious mind 
needed, I imagined, definite and clear-cut plans from authorita- 
tive sources, and the first result of the ride together to Cleveland 



<^[ 19 ]#> 

was a determination on my part to secure, if possible, and place 
before Mr. Rockefeller, a definite plan of an institution which the 
denomination would be willing to undertake to establish with his 
aid in Chicago — a plan which should have denominational author- 
ity and to which he could definitely answer, on careful inquiry, 
yes or no. Accordingly, I wrote him the letter still preserved in 
the file, proposing a conference of certain leading Baptist educa- 
tors and laymen of wealth and influence, to whom should be com- 
mitted the duty of defining with precision just what in their opin- 
ion — as representatives of the Baptist denomination — ^should be 
attempted in Chicago. It should be their duty to estimate the 
cost, define the nature and degree of denominational control, make 
suggestions as to wise and proper location of campus, and gener- 
ally answer every fundamental question in advance. Mr. Rocke- 
feller seized on this suggestion, as I hoped he would, without hesi- 
tation. He disclosed interest in the personnel of the committee, 
the gentlemen were duly invited, and in an all-day session in the 
city of New York, early in April, 1889, they worked out a clear, 
well-reasoned, moderate, and sensible plan. This plan was imme- 
diately communicated to Mr. Rockefeller and was later, as we 
shall see, adopted in substance by the denomination. 

.... Mr. Rockefeller intimated to various friends, in writ- 
ing, among them Dr. Harper, that whatever he might do for the 
University of Chicago he would do through the agency of the 
American Baptist Education Society; and after the report of the 
Committee on Plan for an Institution in Chicago had been pre- 
sented to Mr. Rockefeller, and he had found opportunity for study- 
ing it, he formally invited me to visit him in New York on my 
way to the May Anniversaries to be held that year in Boston. 

I duly presented myself in New York three or four days be- 
fore the Boston meeting, so as to give time for discussing and ar- 
ranging all the details of the important action I was now confident 
Mr. Rockefeller would take. My first interview with Mr. Rocke- 



<#[ 20 ]4> 



feller was at his home. It was disappointing. He talked only in 
the way of general review of the situation. He withheld from me 
for the time his intentions, quite evidently with the purpose of 
going over the situation once more finally in order to see if there 
were any weak spots or questions of doubt. On parting, he reas- 
sured me somewhat by inviting me to breakfast next morning, 
and after breakfast we stepped out on the street and walked to 
and fro on the sidewalk in front of his house, No. 4 West Fifty- 
fourth Street. It was a deUcious May morning. It was agreed 
that the least possible sum on which we could start, the least sum 
which could or ought to command confidence of permanence, 
would be 1 1,000,000. Of this he said he thought he might give as 
much as 1400,000, if it should be absolutely necessary. I explained 
to him that it would be impossible for the society to raise |6oo,ooo 
to his 1400,000, or even ^500,000 to his $500,000; that nothing less 
than |6oo,ooo from him to $400,000 from the denomination gave 
any promise of success. For success we should have to go before 
the people of Chicago and the West with the thing more than half 
done at the start. Such a proposition they would not, they could 
not, allow to fail. Anything less than that would never even get 
started. It would be doomed to hopelessness and to failure at the 
outset. "Give |6oo,ooo of the $1,000,000, and everybody would 
say at the outset: 'This will not, cannot, must not fail; every ad- 
verse interest must and will eflface itself. The whole denomina- 
tion, west and east, will rise as one man to do this whether other 
things are done or not.'" At last, at a certain point near Fifth 
Avenue, Mr. Rockefeller stopped, faced me, and yielded the point. 
Never shall I forget the thrill of that moment. I have since then 
been intimately associated with him. I have seen him give $10,- 
000,000, $30,000,000, $100,000,000, but no gift of his has ever 
thrilled me as did that first great gift of $600,000, on that May 
morning after those months of anxious suspense. 

After the decisive words, Mr. Rockefeller invited me down to 



his office to work out the pledge and all the details. I wrote the 
first drafts of the pledge, and we together worked it over again 
and again, trying various forms of words until it took the shape in 
which it stands. The report of the Committee in April, defining 
the institution to be founded, was put by me in the shape of a 
series of brief, pointed resolutions. Mr. Rockefeller required that 
I keep his pledge absolutely confidential until the society should 
have adopted the resolutions without material change. If the so- 
ciety should fail to adopt the resolutions, committing it and the 
Baptist denomination to the Chicago enterprise as there outlined, 
and doing so without any knowledge whatever of his pledge, doing so 
in advance of any assurance whatever from him, then the pledge was 
to be returned to him undelivered. 

I went to Boston and duly presented the resolutions, first to 
the board which adopted them without change and then to the 
society itself; and on the adoption of the resolutions, Mr. Rocke- 
feller's pledge was announced and received with wild enthusiasm. 

Mr. Rockefeller's pledge of |6oo,ooo toward $1,000,000 re- 
quired the society to raise $400,000 more within the period of one 
year. The resolutions fixed the character of the institution. It was 
to be at the first a college, though it might grow into a university. 
There might be an academy in connection therewith. The insti- 
tution should be located within the city and not without it in a 
suburb. The site should be not less than ten acres. The president 
and two-thirds of the trustees were to be Baptists. Both sexes 
were to be afforded equal opportunities. 

The proposition of Mr. Rockefeller which was read 
at the meeting of the Education Society in Boston, 
May 185 1889, in connection with the action pledging 
the Society to take immediate steps toward the found- 
ing of a well-equipped college in the city of Chicago, 
was as follows: 



<^[ 11 ]#^ 



May 15, 1889 
Rev. Fred T. Gates, Corresponding Secretary, 

American Baptist Education Society: 

My Dear Sir: I will contribute six hundred thousand dollars 
($600,000) toward an endowment fund for a college to be estab- 
lished at Chicago, the income only of which may be used for cur- 
rent expenses, but not for land, buildings, or repairs, providing 
four hundred thousand dollars ($400,000) more is pledged by good 
and responsible parties, satisfactory to the Board of the American 
Baptist Education Society and myself, on or before June i, 1890, 
said four hundred thousand dollars, or as much of it as shall be 
required, to be used for the purpose of purchasing land and erect- 
ing buildings, the remainder of the same to be added to the above 
six hundred thousand dollars, as endowment. 

I will pay the same to the American Baptist Education So- 
ciety in five years, beginning within ninety days after completion 
of the subscription as above and pay 5 per cent each ninety days 
thereafter until all is paid; providing not less than a proportionate 
amount is so paid by the other subscribers to the four hundred 
thousand dollars; otherwise this pledge to be null and void. 

Yours very truly, 

Jno. D. Rockefeller 

The reading of this proposal and the action re- 
solving to enter at once on the work of founding the 
new institution was greeted with tumultuous ap- 
plause. Enthusiastic speeches of indorsement were 
made and the whole assembly united in singing: 
"Praise God from Whom all blessings flow." 

Such then was the happy outcome of the anxieties 
of those most interested, of the many letters, inter- 
views, and consultations of the seven preceding 



^[ 23 ]4> 



months, and of many hopes and fears. All had ended 
in enthusiasm, shouting, and songs of praise. I was 
the only man who was depressed. I had earnestly 
pressed for an unconditional pledge. But here was the 
great sum of $600,000 conditioned on our raising 
$400,000 in a single year. I knew that I would be 
called on to help raise that, as it then seemed, enor- 
mous amount of money. I thought I knew, as few 
others did, what we were up against. While others, 
therefore, were enthusiastic and confident, I re- 
turned home from the great meeting depressed and 
doubtful. The final event, happily, showed how fool- 
ish I had been and how truly and wisely Mr. Rocke- 
feller had opened the way. 



Ill 

THE f^ITiST <J)(CILLIOU^ 
T>OLLA%S 



THE job that confronted us in Chicago on June 
I, 1889, was to add to Mr. Rockefeller's sub- 
scription $400,000, making a full million by 
June I, 1890. We got busy at once. A representative 
meeting of Baptists, held on June 5, appointed a Col- 
lege Committee, which, on June 10, appointed me fi- 
nancial secretary to co-operate with Dr. Gates in rais- 
ing the required fund. Dr. Gates moved to Morgan 
Park, where I was living, and devoted himself for the 
ensuing year to this one undertaking. 

The first step taken was the issuing of a prelimi- 
nary statement and appeal which was distributed in 
the congregations of churches in Chicago and sent to 
1,200 pastors throughout the West for distribution 
among their people. This being done, we settled down 
to the real work of personal solicitation. We went 
everywhere together. From twenty to thirty calls 
were sometimes made in a single day. Because I was 
acquainted with the Baptist public it was my task, 
after a day's work of solicitation was over, to prepare 
a new list of people to be called on the next day. 




Martin A. Ryerson 



^[ 25 ]#> 

There was no hesitation as to where the first ap- 
peal must be made. The new institution was to be 
located in Chicago. It was to be founded under Bap- 
tist auspices. It was to be, as far as possible, the con- 
tribution of that denomination to the cause of educa- 
tion. It was to re-establish in Chicago that education- 
al work the failure of which had been a sorrow and 
humiliation. The chief appeal must be to the Baptists 
of Chicago. They were a comparatively feeble folk 
financially. But they understood perfectly that the 
responsibility for the success of the campaign rested, 
in the first instance, on them. To their honor, it must 
be said, they did not shrink from the great adven- 
ture, but welcomed it with enthusiasm. The Chi- 
cago churches responded liberally, the subscription in 
one of them reaching |8o,ooo, in another $50,000, in 
another $20,000, in a fourth $7,500, and all the rest, 
in proportion to their ability, did fully as well. So 
ready was the Baptist response that at the end of 
sixty days $200,000 had been subscribed. At the end 
of the campaign when all the returns were in, it was 
found that the Baptist people of Chicago had sub- 
scribed $233,000. There were, of course, exceptions to 
the well-nigh universal interest. One man of wealth 
met us at his door and, knowing our errand, did not 
admit us to his house, but said immediately, "I can- 
not help you, I am too poor." I felt compelled to say 
to him, "No, you are not too poor. You are without 



<#[ 26 ]4> 



interest." This man came to the great jubilation 
meeting at the close of the campaign and warmly con- 
gratulated me on our success. Of the $200,000 raised 
in sixty days almost all had come from the Baptist 
people of Chicago. The appeals sent to 1,200 churches 
throughout the West had been fruitful in expressions 
of sympathy, but in subscriptions practically barren 
of results. We had every warrant for calling on the 
Baptists of the entire country. We were the agents of 
a national organization which had undertaken, in the 
name of the denomination, to establish the new insti- 
tution. There were, of course, evident reasons why 
the Baptists of the Middle West should co-operate 
liberally. The institution was being established for 
them and their children. 

Having practically exhausted the resources of help 
among the Baptists of Chicago, we were compelled to 
make our next appeal to the churches of the West. 
On October i, 1889, therefore, the appeals to the 
country began. These appeals were made in letters 
and circulars distributed by the thousand, in visits 
to other cities and through the columns of the de- 
nominational press, particularly through The Standard 
of Chicago. The columns of The Standard ^tr^ gener- 
ously placed at our disposal and through them every 
corner of the West was reached and kept informed of 
the progress of the work. As the denominational or- 
gan at the center of the movement, it was in a position 



^[ 27 ]4> 



to render effective aid, and we could hardly have 
made it more useful in our work, if we had ourselves 
owned the paper. We began our systematic cam- 
paign to reach the churches of the country in its col- 
umns on October 3, 1889, in a very urgent appeal, 
telling how nobly the Baptists of Chicago had done 
and how imperative it was that they should now take 
up the work. Subscription blanks were sent to manv 
pastors and laymen. But the results were almost 
nothing. Discouraged, but not despairing, we con- 
tinued these appeals almost every week and sent sub- 
scription blanks more and more widely. Interest visi- 
bly increased, but subscriptions were few and small. 
We persisted, but it was not until January, 1890, 
that responses began to come that encouraged us. The 
stream, after beginning to flow, gathered volume ev- 
ery day. On February 18, we were able to say to the 
readers of our appeals: *'We have thus far received 
from the Northwest, outside Chicago, about 130,000. 
If we can secure ^70,000 outside the city our success 
will be assured." That anyone receiving The Stand- 
ard who was disposed to help might have a subscrip- 
tion blank at hand we printed one in the paper. 
These blanks soon began to return in the shape of 
good subscriptions. The interest among the churches 
visibly increased. On March 20, the secretaries an- 
nounced in The Standard that ^40,000 had been se- 
cured outside of Chicago. Returns had so increased 



^[ 28 ]4> 



that they were coming in at the rate of nearly $3,000 
a week. In response to renewed requests to set a day 
for the presentation of the cause of the new institution 
in the churches we named the second Sunday in April 
as "University Day." Having been urged to insert 
the subscription form again in The Standard we did 
this also. The following week this was done once more 
and for the last time, and it was announced that up 
to that date a total of seven hundred subscriptions 
had been received. At the close of the campaign eight 
weeks later, the number of subscribers had more than 
doubled. On April i, $100,000 remained to be secured. 
In the first two months of the campaign $200,000 had 
been subscribed. It had taken eight months to raise 
the third $100,000. How could a like sum be found in 
the two months now remaining ^ It was evident that 
help must be found in the East as well as in the West. 
Dr. Gates therefore spent a full month in March and 
April seeking such help in the eastern cities. The re- 
sults, amounting to nearly $1,000 for every day of his 
absence, contributed essentially to the final success. 

University Day in the churches produced $5,000 
in a single week. In the end the appeal to the churches 
was a great success. At the outset it seemed doomed 
to failure, but as the end of our year drew near the 
volume of subscriptions increased wonderfully. 

In the very last week of the campaign the Evans- 
ton church reported $7,500, and the Woodward Ave- 



^[ 29 ]4> 



nue Church of Detroit, Michigan, ^15,000. Scores of 
other congregations sent in their offerings and large 
numbers of individual subscriptions were received. 
When the campaign ended it was found that $1 16,000 
had been subscribed outside of Chicago. Such was the 
effort to enlist the co-operation of individuals and 
churches in places beyond the narrow limits of a single 
city and so unexpectedly great was the result. Great, 
but not enough. 

We, therefore, sought to open a third fountain of 
benevolence. After anxious consultations, we deter- 
mined to appeal to the general business public of 
Chicago. Feeling that in trying to see men of wealth 
we must be introduced by someone better known than 
ourselves, we sought help in getting such introduc- 
tions. But we soon found that if we made good use 
of our time we must do the work ourselves, together, 
depending on no outside help. 

The first man called on, in this new departure, was 
Charles L. Hutchinson, who promised help, entered 
heartily into our plans, and continued to give us sug- 
gestions and assistance to the end of the campaign. 
Our reception by Mr. Hutchinson greatly encouraged 
us. We were still more encouraged as we continued 
to get a sympathetic hearing and receive assurances 
of help. We were received so well and so many assur- 
ances of help were given us that our courage was 
greatly increased and our hopes began to enlarge. We 



^[ 30 ]^ 



soon had the names of seventeen men from whom we 
had assurances of substantial assistance, though none 
of them had yet made formal and definite subscrip- 
tions. 

Matters had reached this stage when, on Decem- 
ber 4, 1889, ^ ^^1^ was made on Marshall Field, the 
leading merchant of Chicago. Some time had already 
been spent in inspecting possible sites for the new in- 
stitution. Finally unoccupied ground was found front- 
ing on the Midway Plaisance between Washington 
and Jackson parks. It was recognized at once as the 
ideal site. Learning that it belonged to Mr. Field it 
was determined to ask him to donate ten acres for the 
purpose. He received the request with hospitality, 
but said the firm was about to make the annual inven- 
tory and learn the results of the year's business. He 
asked his visitors, therefore, to come and see him 
six weeks later. Before the end of the six weeks 
a letter was sent to him embodying the following 
points: 

That his favorable decision would lead to certain 
and great success; that any section of the land he pre- 
ferred to give would be satisfactory; that an agree- 
ment would be made to expend at least |2oo,ooo 
in buildings and improvements within five years; 
that these improvements would be begun within one 
year from June i, 1890; that a deed of the land would 
not be asked until these conditions, or such as he 



^[ 31 ]4> 



might impose, were fulfilled; that every effort would 
be made to increase the endowments and equipments 
every year and to make a really great institution. We 
next called on Mr. Field on January 15, 1890. The de- 
tails of the interview are preserved in a letter written 
four days later to my sons at college. The first thing 
Mr. Field said was this: 

**I have not yet made up my mind about giving 
you that ten acres. But I have decided one thing. If 
I give it to you, I shall wish you to make up the 
1400,000 independently of this donation." 

We assured him that this we could and would do. 
He then had his maps brought and indicated the tract 
he had in mind to give, lying on the southeast corner 
of Ellis Avenue and Fifty-sixth Street. We thought 
we saw that Mr. Field had really decided in his own 
mind to make the donation and therefore felt that we 
might safely urge him to do so. We asked if Mr. Gates 
might not telegraph Mr. Rockefeller that he had de- 
cided to give the site. He repeated that he was not 
quite ready to go so far as this. We then said: 

"Mr. Field, our work is really waiting for your de- 
cision. We are anxious to push it rapidly; indeed, we 
must do so; and if we can say that you have given us 
the site, it will help us immensely with every man we 
approach." 

After a moment's reflection, Mr. Field answered: 

"Well, I suppose I might as well decide it now as 



^[ 32 ]^ 



at any time. If the conditions are satisfactory, you 
may say that I will give this ten acres as the site." 

He pronounced the points made in the letter sent 
to him satisfactory and the secretaries accepted the 
condition named by him, viz., that they should go on 
and secure the full $400,000 independently of his do- 
nation. The matter of the site finally took the follow- 
ing form : Mr. Field gave to the Education Society for 
the new institution one and one-half blocks and sold 
to it for $132,500 another block and a half, the three 
blocks beginning at the Midway Plaisance and run- 
ning north along the east side of Ellis Avenue two 
blocks to Fifty-seventh Street and east along the 
south side of Fifty-seventh Street two blocks to Uni- 
versity (then Lexington) Avenue. These three blocks 
constituted the site afterward transferred by the Edu- 
cation Society to the University. 

The impulse which we had assured Mr. Field 
would be given to our work by the donation of the 
site became immediately apparent. We had been at 
work among the business men three months. We now 
had the names of twenty-three men of wealth who 
had assured us of help, but we had not secured a single 
definite, formal subscription. During the week fol- 
lowing the giving of the site, however, three sub- 
scriptions of $1,000 each and two of $5,000 each were 
secured among the business men. The work among 
them went on from this time with increasing success. 



^[ 33 ]^ 



The well-nigh universal attitude was one of sympa- 
thetic interest and of willingness and desire to assist. 
No men were ever better treated than were we two 
unknown solicitors for money. 

Such indeed was the public sympathy and inter- 
est that two independent, auxiliary movements were 
launched that contributed greatly to the final success. 
The first of these was undertaken by the alumni of 
the Old University. An inconsiderable sum was sub- 
scribed toward endowing a chair as a memorial of a 
fellow-alumnus, Edward Olson, of the class of 1873. 
Many subscriptions were made in addition to those 
for this memorial and there were received from the 
old alumni aggregate pledges of $30,000. 

The other auxiliary movement was inaugurated 
and carried through by the Standard Club, the great 
Jewish club of the city. At a meeting held April 8, 
1890, the club voted unanimously to raise $25,000 
for the new institution. This they did, the total 
pledges received from the Jews amounting to $27,000. 
This movement gave a new impulse to our work. Men 
were found increasingly ready to respond to the ap- 
peals made to them. On May i we issued yf Brief 
Final Statement^ setting forth that $50,000 was still 
lacking and must be raised during the next thirty 
days, which was sent to a large number of business 
men. The next week the subscriptions reached $16,- 
000. The week following they aggregated $30,000. 



<^[ 34 ]^ 



We had undertaken to raise among the business men 
$100,000. Including Mr. Field's gift of ten acres of 
the site, they gave us $200,000. 

The meeting of the Baptist National Anniversa- 
ries of May, 1890, was held in Chicago. The interest 
of the entire series of meetings, covering a week, 
centered in those of the Education Society. Dr. 
Gates submitted the report on the general work of the 
year and called on me to report on our joint efforts 
in securing the subscriptions for the founding of the 
new institution. In the course of my report this sen- 
tence occurred: "It was this universal interest and 
this country-wide rally to our support that secured 
success." At this point I interrupted my report and 
incidentally expressed the hope that the roll of states 
and territories represented in the subscription might 
be completed. The official report of the meeting says: 

At once two or three people are up to speak for missing states. 
Maine, South Carolina, West Virginia, Utah, are in the field so 
nearly together that it is impossible to say which led off. Then 
someone speaks for the Sandwich Islands. The states and terri- 
tories have all answered. The doors are opened to the nations of 
the earth .... the nooks and corners of the atlas are ransacked 
that the world may have a share in the privilege of building the 
University of Chicago. It is a cheerful scene and yet with an ele- 
ment of earnestness which the report of it may fail to convey. 
The subscriptions are small, they are found when they are footed 
up to aggregate but a few thousand dollars, but they represent 
hearty congratulations and a very widespread sympathy. 



<!*[ 35 ]^ 



The total subscription of the year, including all 
pledges, was found to amount to $549,000. It was ap- 
proved and accepted by Mr. Rockefeller. A great 
jubilation meeting was held in the then newly com- 
pleted Auditorium. As one year before in Boston, the 
great assembly united in singing the Doxology. 
Again the anxieties, fears, hopes, and struggles of the 
year had ended in enthusiasm, shouting, and songs of 
praise. 

The board of trustees was immediately appointed 
by the Education Society. Its first meeting was held 
July 9, 1890, when Dr. Gates submitted an impor- 
tant statement from the Education Society, reciting 
"the engagements and obligations which that Society 
entered into with the subscribers'* to the million- 
dollar fund and concluding thus; "We now commit 
to you this high trust. The erection of the buildings, 
the organization of the institution, the expenditure 
and investment of its funds, and all that pertains 
to its work, its growth and its prosperity is placed 
absolutely without any reserve under your control." 

On September 8, 1890, the trustees of the first 
University of Chicago changed its name to "The Old 
University" and the way being thus opened to give 
the new institution its name, two days later the Secre- 
tary of State of Illinois issued the Certificate of In- 
corporation to it as the University of Chicago. The 
second meeting of the board of trustees was held 



^[ 36 ]4> 



September 18, memorable because it witnessed the 
unanimous election of Dr. Harper to the presidency. 
The officers of the Board were E. Nelson Blake, presi- 
dent; Martin A. Ryerson, vice-president; Charles L. 
Hutchinson, treasurer; Dr. Justin A. Smith (editor of 
The Standard), recording secretary; T. W. Good- 
speed, financial secretary. 

At the end of the first fiscal year June 30, 1891, 
j^ 1 60,000 of the subscriptions to the ^400,000 fund 
had been collected and the proportion due from Mr. 
Rockefeller, ^240,000, had been paid. The block and 
a half of ground purchased from Mr. Field was paid 
for and on August 24, 1891, the Education Society 
conveyed the entire site of three blocks to the Uni- 
versity. Thus the Society, in accordance with the 
policy adopted in the beginning, "to exercise no con- 
trol over the financial affairs of the institution be- 
yond the time when in the judgment of the board the 
institution is solidly founded," now withdrew entirely 
and, turning over all funds and pledges, left the new 
University it had done so much to originate to the 
sole care of its own trustees. The first million was 
now in its hands. 



IV 

rHE y^IRST TRESIT>EJ\(J 



THE first president of the University was 
William Rainey Harper. He was born at 
New Concord, Ohio, July 26, 1856, and was of 
sturdy Scotch-Irish stock. A student from early boy- 
hood, he entered the Freshman class of Muskingum 
College, New Concord, at ten years of age. Although 
one of the youngest students ever permitted to pursue 
a college course, it was characteristic of him that he 
habitually took more than the required amount of 
work. He graduated at fourteen with the honor of the 
Hebrew oration. Although on his graduation his 
father wisely made the boy a clerk in his store, it can- 
not be doubted that he himself regarded the clerkship 
as incidental to his real work, for his studies still went 
forward with such zeal that at seventeen he went to 
Yale as a graduate student in philology. Before his 
nineteenth birthday he received from Yale the degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy. 

The same year, 1875, ^^ married Ella Paul, daugh- 
ter of President Paul of Muskingum College. In the 
autumn of the same year, 1875, ^^ became principal 



^[ 38 ]4> 



of Masonic College, Macon, Tennessee. The following 
year he went to Granville, Ohio, as tutor in the prepar- 
atory department of Denison University. Here his 
unusual qualities were soon divined by President E. 
Benjamin Andrews and the preparatory department 
was made the Granville Academy with the youthful 
tutor as principal. Let it not be thought that young 
Harper was merely a bookworm, who knew none of 
the joys of youth. He early developed a love of music 
which greatly enriched his life. He was a member of a 
band and played the cornet, and playing on this in- 
strument was one of his recreations when president 
of a great university. 

President Andrews soon came to see that the prin- 
cipal of his Academy was an altogether exceptional 
man — that he could not be confined to academy work 
and ought not to be. Much, therefore, as he disliked to 
lose Dr. Harper, he put selfish considerations aside 
and recommended him to the Theological Seminary 
at Morgan Park for its vacant chair of Hebrew. I 
first met Dr. Harper in the study of Dr. Northrup, 
president of the Seminary at Morgan Park. We were 
members of a committee appointed with power to 
engage him as instructor in Hebrew. Dr. Harper was 
stockily built, five feet seven inches tall, smooth- 
faced and spectacled, and looked very young. He was 
twenty-two — younger than the men he would be 
called upon to teach. He was too young to be made 




m 




President William Rainey Harper 



M 39 ]^ 



a professor, but, with some misgiving, was made an 
instructor, with a salary of |i,ooo, and began work 
January i, 1879. ^^^ ^^^^ Y^^^ he was made a full 
professor. In April, 1881, "The use of the Seminary 
building was granted to Professor Harper for a sum- 
mer school for the study of Hebrew." This was the 
first of his Hebrew summer schools. 

Dr. E. B. Hulbert, dean of the Divinity School, 
wrote of the Morgan Park period. 

.... At the end of two years Dr. Harper found that his 
super-abounding zeal could not work itself off in regular classes in 
term time. The impulse seized him to utilize the vacation periods. 
In 1 88 1, in the Seminary lecture rooms, he opened the first of 
his famous summer schools. One summer a second school was 
conducted at Worcester, Massachusetts, to meet New England 
needs, and the following summer a second school at New Haven, 
and yet a third in Philadelphia appealed to a still wider constit- 
uency The awakened interest creating the demand for 

better study helps, the Elements of Hebrew appeared in 1881; 
Hebrew Vocabularies in 1882; A Hebrew Manual and Lessons of 
the Elementary Course in 1883; Lessons of the Intermediate Course 
and Lessons of the Progressive Course in 1884; Introductory He- 
brew Method and Manual in 1885. 

The business of promoting Hebrew, so auspiciously begun and 
so rapidly extending, could not get on without an organ. The new 
journal was christened The Hebrew Student. .... The Hebrew 
Student was popular in character; to meet the more technical lin- 
guistic needs, Hebraica was launched. 

It did not take many years for Dr. Harper to grow 
too great for Morgan Park. The authorities became 



<^[ 40 ]4^ 



aware that they could not permanently hold him 
there. It was therefore no surprise to them when in 
1885 and the winter and spring of 1886 he was in- 
vited to Yale. It goes without saying that we did 
everything possible to keep him from leaving us. Al- 
though Mr. Rockefeller was not then acquainted with 
Dr. Harper, on April 5, 1886, he wrote me a letter, 
teUing me that someone representing Yale had called 
on him in reference to an effort then being made to 
take Professor Harper from Morgan Park to New 
Haven. It was the interest he manifested in helping 
us to hold Dr. Harper that inspired my first letter to 
him in reference to a new university. I said to him in 
the course of this letter: 

We have proposed to Dr. Harper to assume the presidency of 
our wrecked and ruined University and to re-estabhsh it here at 
Morgan Park, retaining the oversight of the department of He- 
brew in the Seminary. The suggestion has taken a strong hold on 
him and if he had some assurance of help he would not hesitate 
to do it. 

This same suggestion was welcomed with enthusi- 
asm by the trustees of the then existing University 
and he was at once elected president. But Mr. Rocke- 
feller not then seeing his way to encourage so large a 
project, Dr. Harper declined the presidency and ac- 
cepted the position at Yale. It was during these nego- 
tiations that, on April 26, 1886, these two remark- 
able men first became acquainted. 



<#[ 41 ]^ 



It was in the early eighties, while Dr. Harper was 
still at Morgan Park that Dr. John H. Vincent, al- 
ways on the lookout for efficient teachers for Chau- 
tauqua, heard of this young teacher of Hebrew and in 
the summer of 1883 added him to his corps of instruc- 
tors. Here, as everywhere. Dr. Harper soon made a 
great impression. It was not long before he was prin- 
cipal of the College of Liberal Arts. His influence 
and power in the affairs of Chautauqua constantly 
increased until its whole educational work was in his 
hands. 

In the autumn of 1886 Dr. Harper went to Yale as 
professor of Semitic languages in the graduate de- 
partment. He was also made instructor in the Divin- 
ity School. He was teaching Hebrew, Assyrian, Ara- 
bic, Aramaic, and Syriac. He had taken the American 
Institute of Hebrew with him to New Haven with his 
summer schools, journals, and correspondence school, 
his assistants, and printing office. 

Soon he made a new departure. He began to give 
courses of lectures on the Bible to popular audiences 
and proved as attractive and inspiring on the lecture 
platform as in the classroom. 

The value placed on Dr. Harper's work at Yale 
may be measured by the establishment in 1889, espe- 
cially for him, of the Woolsey professorship of biblical 
literature in the undergraduate department. 

Thus within three years he came to occupy three 



^[ 42 ]^ 



separate chairs of instruction, in the College, the 
Graduate Department, and the Divinity School. 
After so short a time he was already filling a great 
place at Yale, and not at Yale only. He had devel- 
oped such gifts for public address that his services as 
a lecturer on the Bible were sought far and wide, in 
universities, in theological schools, in women's col- 
leges, and in churches. On December 10, 1889, he was 
elected president of the University of South Dakota, 
but declined. He had developed such extraordinary 
gifts in so many directions that Dr. A. H. Strong had 
sought and obtained his co-operation in the plans for 
organizing the proposed graduate university in New 
York City. Dr. Strong said of him: 

Pedagogies were natural to him. How to get the most out 
of a teacher and out of an hour were vital problems to him. 
And this pedagogic instinct qualified him to launch a new uni- 
versity upon uncharted seas and with new methods of naviga- 
tion His executive powers were quite equal to his ambi- 
tions. He could organize a machine to run the federal govern- 
ment. 

Is it to be wondered at that all who were inti- 
mately connected with the founding of the University 
of Chicago thought of Dr. Harper and of him only as 
its president ? They never wavered in their choice of 
him nor in their expectation that he would take the 
place. They regarded his presidency as manifest 
destiny, as a duty imposed which he could not escape. 



^[ 43 ]^ 



Their object was to bring him to this view and make 
him willing to undertake the duty. The movement 
looking toward Dr. Harper's presidency began very 
early. On July 17, 1886, three weeks after the Old 
University closed its doors, I wrote: "Hold yourself 
ready to return here some time as President of a new 
University." When, after the Vassar conference in 
October, 1888, he informed his friends in Chicago of 
the new prospects opening before them for an insti- 
tution of learning, without a moment's hesitation they 
began to tell him that he must be its president. To 
all these suggestions, however, he turned a deaf ear. 
He would Hsten to none of them and we would Hsten 
to none of his objections. All this continued with 
some interesting developments till January, 1889. 
There is a humorous side to the matter of these seri- 
ous discussions as to presidency of an institution that 
did not exist and the future existence of which was 
still wholly problematical. Mr. Rockefeller himself 
was engaged in them although it was not till four 
months later that he made his first subscription. 

From this date, January, 1889, the question of the 
presidency was wholly in abeyance for many months. 
The question was, should there be any institution at 
all. But no sooner was the money raised for the 
foundation of the new University than that question 
came again, at once, to the front. It was now a live 
question. 



^[ 44 ]^ 

When Dr. Harper was again approached on the 
subject, as he was at once, to our immense gratifica- 
tion he acknowledged that he "was much more in- 
chned to consider the Chicago question" than ever 
before. 

Dr. Harper was not elected president at the first 
meeting of the trustees of the University because the 
board was not then legally incorporated, but it had 
been made plain to him that as soon as the incorpora- 
tion was effected the trustees would elect him by a 
unanimous vote and fully expected him to become 
president of the University. This very quickly be- 
came common knowledge throughout the country, in 
New York and New Haven, as well as in Chicago. 
Naturally enough the first difficulty arose in New 
Haven. Dr. Harper lost no time in acquainting Presi- 
dent Dwight with the condition of affairs, confessing 
that the pull of the Chicago opportunity and duty 
was felt by him very strongly. President Dwight ob- 
jected strenuously. He thought he had done so much 
for Dr. Harper that the latter was bound to remain at 
Yale indefinitely. But he was a hard man to drive 
and insisted that he was free to go where and when 
duty called him. 

Information of what was in the wind becoming 
thus generally diffused, in a surprisingly short time let- 
ters began to pour in on Dr. Harper from every quar- 
ter. His Yale friends strongly advised him to remain 



^[ 45 ]^ 



at New Haven. Many things which, in the light of 
the subsequent attraction of the University of Chi- 
cago for graduate students and students of all kinds, 
seem very amusing, were urged, e.g., the following by 
a Yale professor: "While you are in your prime, few 
men will care for a Ph.D. or even a B.A. from your 
University who can manage to get a similar degree 
from an institution like this." 

But even stronger arguments were urged in a flood 
of letters from all parts of the country in the effort to 
convince him that he must go to Chicago. Presidents 
and professors of universities, colleges, and theological 
seminaries, pastors of churches, trustees of the new 
University, and others enforced the claims of Chicago 
by every sort of consideration. With the question im- 
mediately and practically before him Dr. Harper 
found himself greatly perplexed and disturbed. He 
wrote to Dr. Gates, July 30, as follows: 

The great question and the question which I am trying to 
settle in my own mind is, Whether or not I can continue my Hfe 
work as a bibhcal speciaHst, and do this work which the Univer- 
sity of Chicago will demand; and if not, whether I am justified in 

giving up the hfe work You may be sure I am thinking, 

and dreaming, and doing nothing really but this Chicago matter. 

On the next day he wrote to me as follows: 

It does not seem possible to do what ought to be done, what 
the denomination will expect, what the world will expect, with 
the money we have in hand. There must in some way be an assur- 
ance of an additional million. How this is to be obtained, or 



^[ 46 ]4> 



where, is the question. If Mr. R. is in dead earnest, possibly the 
case will not be so difficult as we may think. 

He heard from Mr. Rockefeller within a week after 
writing this letter and the message must have helped 
him farther on toward a decision. The letter was 
written August 5, 1890. 

I agree with the Board of Trustees of the Chicago University 
that you are the man for President, and if you will take it I shall 
expect great results. I cannot conceive of a position where you 
can do the world more good; and I confidently expect we will add 
funds, from time to time, to those already pledged, to place it 
upon the most favored basis financially. I do not forget that the 
effort to establish the University grew out of your suggestion to 
me at Vassar. 

In this letter Dr. Harper had been invited to visit 
Mr. and Mrs. Rockefeller at Cleveland and in answer- 
ing the letter and accepting the invitation he said, 
after speaking of his reluctance to make the great 
change in his life-work which the acceptance of the 
presidency would require: 

There is one other difficulty which I think has hardly been 
appreciated. The denomination, and, indeed, the whole country, 
are expecting the University of Chicago to be from the very begin- 
ning an institution of the highest rank and character. Already it 
is talked of in connection with Yale, Harvard, Princeton, Johns 
Hopkins, the University of Michigan, and Cornell. No one ex- 
pects that it will be in any respect lower in grade and equipment 
than the average of the institutions to which I have referred, and 
yet, with the money pledged, I cannot understand how the expec- 
tations can be fulfilled. Naturally we ought to be willing to 



^[ 47 ]4> 



begin small and grow, but in these days when things are done so 
rapidly, and with the example of Johns Hopkins before our eyes, 
it seems a great pity to wait for growth when we might be born 
full-fledged. 

About this and other matters I shall hope to talk with you 
when we meet. 

The next moment of great interest in the story was 
a conference between Dr. Harper and Dr. Gates at 
Morgan Park, on August 17, 1890. The two men 
spent the day together, as Mr. Gates writes of it, 

a day of crisis and decision, happily fateful for the new institution. 
The fundamental question was how could he become President of 
a University in Chicago and at the same time not practically re- 
nounce his chosen life work of Old Testament research, criticism, 
and instruction. 

Gradually the following plan unfolded itself: 

1 . The Theological Seminary to be removed to the campus of 
the University. 

2. The Seminary to become an organic part of the University. 

3. The Seminary buildings at Morgan Park to be used for a 
University Academy. 

4. Equivalent or better buildings for the Seminary to be 
erected on the University campus. 

5. Instruction in Hebrew and Old Testament criticism to be 
transferred to University chairs. 

6. Dr. Harper to be head professor with salary and full 
authority over the department. 

7. Mr. Rockefeller to give one million dollars as a new, un- 
conditional gift, a part of which would go for aid to the Seminary 
in carrying out the program. 

8. Dr. Harper to visit Mr. Rockefeller and agree to accept the 
presidency on this program. 



<^[ 48 ]4> 



The visit to Cleveland was made on September 4 
and 5. Dr. Gates had already laid the program be- 
fore Mr. Rockefeller and he was therefore prepared 
to discuss the whole question. Nearly one entire day 
was given to the consideration of details, Mr. Rocke- 
feller having apparently immediately decided to give 
the million dollars as soon as he was assured that Dr. 
Harper would, if he did so, accept the presidency. 

On receiving the assurance of this gift Dr. Harper 
began at once to act on the theory that he was com- 
mitted to the presidency. The day after the inter- 
view he wrote to me, asking me to do six things, in- 
dicating that he wished to see things pushed and say- 
ing he would assume the responsibility. The second 
meeting of the board of trustees of the new Univer- 
sity was held September 18, 1890, and Dr. Harper 
was elected president by a unanimous and rising vote. 
He asked and was given six months in which to com- 
municate his decision, but it was understood by the 
trustees that his acceptance was assured. And in- 
deed he began at once to perform a president's duties. 

Our troubles, however, were by no means over. 
Dr. Harper was very conscientious and he became 
doubtful whether he would be regarded as sufficiently 
orthodox to occupy the presidency of the leading 
University of his denomination. I have told the story 
of our struggle with him elsewhere. In the end we sat- 
isfied him or at least won him over to our view. His 



^[ 49 1^ 



acceptance of the presidency was conveyed to the 
trustees in the following letter: 

New Haven, Conn-. 

February i6, 1891 
To the Trustees of the University of Chicago: 

Gentlemen: After having considered the proffer of the presi- 
dency of the University of Chicago with which you honored me in 
September, 1890, 1 beg herewith to indicate my acceptance of the 
same. With your permission I will not enter upon the work of the 
position until July i, 1891. 

I believe that, under your wise and liberal management and 
with the co-operation of the citizens of Chicago, the institution 
will fulfil the generous hopes of its friends and founders. 

It is with this conviction that I unreservedly place myself at 
your service. 

Trusting that the same divine Providence which has guided 
this undertaking in the past will continue to foster it through all 
the future, I remain 

Yours sincerely, 

William R. Harper 

This letter was laid before the board of trustees 
on April 11. Dr. Harper's salary was thereupon fixed 
at $6,000 per year. He was also appointed head of the 
Semitic Department with a salary of $4,000, and was 
granted leave of absence during such part of the time 
between July i, 1891, and the date of the opening of 
the University as he could spend abroad profitably 
for the University. 

Dr. Harper's acceptance of the presidency was 
hailed with deep and wide satisfaction. Dr. Wallace 



^[ 50 ]4> 



Buttrick voiced the general feeling when he wrote to 
the new president on hearing of his acceptance: "I 
thank you and congratulate the Universe." The re- 
lief of those most intimately related to the enterprise 
was unspeakable. For them a long period of anxiety 
and struggle was over. The first president was se- 
cured. 



V 

TXESIT>ENT HARPE'E^TLA:?^ 
^ UJ^FERSITT 



THE first million-dollar fund was contributed 
to the new institution to found a college. For 
many months before his formal election to 
the presidency Dr. Harper had been considering, more 
or less seriously, the plan on which the institution 
should be organized. The friends of the enterprise had 
urged the consideration of this problem. They had re- 
minded him that he was the only educational expert 
among the trustees, that on the educational plan the 
trustees would look to him for guidance and they had 
urged him to have such a plan ready for the Septem- 
ber, 1890, meeting. But for the first and only time in 
his life his prohfic mind seemed to be barren of ideas. 
It refused to function. He cudgeled his brains in vain 
to strike out a plan of organization. The truth was 
that from the beginning his mind and heart had been 
fixed on a university, while a college only had been 
founded. He had appeared to yield to the necessity 
of beginning with a college. As a matter of fact he 
had never yielded. The idea of a university remained 
fixed in his mind and he found himself unable to think 



<^[ 52 ]4> 



in terms of a college — for undergraduate students 
only. No sooner, however, had Mr. Rockefeller added 
a million dollars to the funds for the purpose of mak- 
ing the college a true university than Dr. Harper's 
mind became very busy. His creative instinct at once 
awoke. He could think fast and effectively in terms 
of a university. Within two weeks after this second 
million had been promised his mind had grappled with 
the question with all that extraordinary concentra- 
tion and fecundity which were so characteristic. 

The months of brooding over the question, now 
that the way was open for planning the university of 
his dreams, came to sudden fruition. While returning 
to New Haven after his election in September, 1890, 
he began to work on the plan, and before the end of 
the journey the broad outlines of it had been fully 
drawn up. According to his own statements, quoted 
elsewhere, it flashed upon him, suddenly assumed 
shape, and gave him immense satisfaction. The first 
presentation of it was made to the trustees at their 
fourth meeting, in December, 1890, adopted by them, 
and given to the public in what was called Official 
Bulletin No. /. This was followed at brief intervals 
by five other official bulletins, filling out and elaborat- 
ing the plan under the following heads: "The Col- 
leges," "The Academies," "The Graduate Schools," 
"The Divinity School," "The University Extension 
Division." 



^[ S3 ]^ 



No attempt will here be made to present the educa- 
tional plan in its details. Dr. Harper, while he grasped 
large plans in outline, had a remarkable gift for work- 
ing these plans out into the minutest details. It fell to 
the writer to be in intimate official relations with him. 
At their business conferences the president would fre- 
quently begin by saying, "I have forty points to be 
discussed this morning." He kept a "red book" in 
which he wrote out the points to be worked out by 
himself or discussed with his subordinates. There are 
a dozen or more of these red books in the University 
archives. Under every general subject there are writ- 
ten, in his hand, from ten to a hundred and fifty points 
for consideration or discussion. An officer would often 
carry away from a conference twenty questions to 
work out, on which he was expected to report. In the 
same way the plan was elaborated into great detail. 
In Official Bulletin No. /, there were a hundred and 
fifty divisions and subdivisions; in the second, on The 
Colleges^ two hundred and twenty-five or more; and 
in the six bulletins more than a thousand, filling a 
hundred printed pages. 

When the plan assumed its final form, the general 
organization of the University included these ^yq. 
divisions : 

The University Proper 

The University Extension 

The University Press 



<!*[ 54 ]4> 



The University Libraries, Laboratories, and Muse- 
ums 

The University Affiliations 

It may be said of three of the general divisions that 
they were new features in the organization of an Amer- 
ican university. In these three — University Exten- 
sion, the University Press, and University Affiliations 
— President Harper was deeply interested. The other 
divisions were common, in one form or another, to all 
universities. These three were his own conception, 
and he confidently believed that they promised, if 
wisely and successfully administered, to increase im- 
mensely the University's scope and usefulness and 
power. Hitherto American universities had concen- 
trated and confined their work within their own pre- 
cincts. It was President Harper's purpose to extend 
college and university instruction to the public at 
large, to make the University useful to other institu- 
tions, and to expand its influence and usefulness, 
through its press, as widely as possible. He believed 
there were large numbers of people who could spend 
little or no time at the University itself who would 
welcome and profit by the instruction of its profes- 
sors in genuine college and university courses, if that 
instruction could be sent to them through lectures, 
afternoon and evening classes, correspondence lessons, 
and books loaned to them from the libraries. He had 
learned of the success of the extension movement con- 



^[ 55 ]^ 



ducted in England by the University of Cambridge, 
and expected wide usefulness for the enlarged and 
varied work in the university extension he contem- 
plated. It was because he believed so fully in its value 
and its permanency that in his educational plan he 
made it one of the five great divisions of the Univer- 
sity. The basic principle on which he would build a 
university was service — service not merely to the stu- 
dents within its walls, but also to the public, to man- 
kind. 

This was the end he had in view in all the three 
new and novel divisions of the organization. He was 
a profound believer in the power of the printed page. 
Through the Press he believed the usefulness of the 
University would be immensely enlarged and carried 
to the ends of the earth. It was on this account that 
his heart was set on building the University Press into 
the system, making it not an incident, an attachment, 
but one of the great divisions of the University, an 
organic part of the institution. 

The same thing was true as to Affiliation. Presi- 
dent Harper did not wish to found a university that 
would through its rivalry weaken and injure the smal- 
ler institutions of the Middle West. He conceived the 
plan of entering into relations of affiliation with them, 
not primarily to increase the power of Chicago, but 
rather to assist them in raising their standards, to 
add to their prestige, and in every way to strengthen 



^[ 56 ]4> 

and upbuild them. This principle of large and wide 
service was, indeed, the fundamental principle of the 
educational plan of the University. 

These five general divisions may perhaps be re- 
garded as the foundation upon which the University 
was to be built. The most important element of the 
superstructure would, of course, be the students, and 
the institution was to be coeducational. Men 'and 
women were to be admitted to all its privileges on 
equal terms. This had been decided before the edu- 
cational plan had been considered. 

There remain to be considered two of the most im- 
portant and most interesting features of President 
Harper's educational plan. These two features were 
among those which he termed educational experi- 
ments. It may probably be truthfully said that he re- 
garded them as the central and essential features of 
the new University. He believed in them with his 
whole heart and should be permitted to present them 
in his own words. 

I quote from a statement written by him a few 
months before the University opened and intended 
to be his first annual report to the board, but which 
because he was overwhelmed with the other duties of 
those busy months, he could not find time to finish. 
He wrote most fully on the two features of his plan 
now to be considered. These were the Academic Year 
and the Classification of Courses. 



M 57 ]» 

The work of the University has been arranged to continue 
throughout the year. It is divided into four quarters of twelve 
weeks each, with a recess of one week after each quarter. Each 
quarter is further divided into two terms of six weeks each. While 
instruction will thus be offered during forty-eight weeks of the 
year, a professor or teacher will be expected to lecture only thirty- 
six weeks. He may take as his vacation any one of the four quar- 
ters, according as it may be arranged, or he may take two vaca- 
tions of six weeks each at different periods of the year. All vaca- 
tions, whether extra or regular, shall be adjusted to the demands 
of the situation, in order that there may always be on hand a 
working force. 

The student may take as his vacation any one of the four quar- 
ters, or, if he desire, two terms of six weeks each in different parts 
of the year. There seems to be no good reason why, during a large 
portion of the year, the University buildings should be empty and 
the advantages which it offers denied to many who desire them. 

The small number of hours required of professors (eight to 
ten hours a week) makes it possible for investigation to be carried 
on all the time, and in the climate of Chicago there is no season 
which, upon the whole, is more suitable for work than the summer. 

This plan of a continuous session secures certain advantages 
which are denied in institutions open only three- fourths of the year. 

It will permit the admission of students to the University at 
several times during the course of the year, rather than at one 
time only, the arrangement of courses having already been made 
with this object in view. It will enable students who have lost 
time because of illness to make up the lost work without further 
injury to their health or detriment to the subject studied. It will 
make it possible for the summer months to be employed in study 
by those who are physically able to carry on intellectual work 
throughout the year, and who may thus take the full college 
course in three years. It will permit students to be absent from 



<^[ 58 ]^ 



the University during those portions of the year in which they 
can to best advantage occupy themselves in procuring means with 
which to continue the course. It will make it possible for the Uni- 
versity to use, beside its own corps of teachers, the best men of 
other institutions both in this country and in Europe. It will per- 
mit greater freedom on the part of both students and instructors 
in the matter of vacations. It will provide an opportunity for 
professors in smaller institutions, teachers in academies and high 
schools, ministers and others, who, under the existing system, 
cannot attend a college or university, to avail themselves of the 
opportunity of university residence. > 

On the Classification of Courses he said: 

Majors and Minors. — It is conceded by many instructors and 
students that the plan which prevails in many institutions of 
providing courses of instruction of one, two, and three hours a 
week, thus compelling the student to pursue six, seven, and even 
eight different subjects at one time, is a mistake. In order to be- 
come deeply interested in the subject the student must concen- 
trate his attention upon that subject. Concentration on a single 
subject is impossible, if at the same time the student is held re- 
sponsible for work in five or more additional subjects. 

The plan of majors and minors, announced in our bulletins 
and calendars, has been arranged in order to meet this difficulty. 
The terms do not indicate that the subject taken as a major is 
more important than the subject taken as a minor. It is entirely 
possible that the most important subjects should never be taken 
as majors. The terms mean simply, that, for a certain period of 
six weeks or twelve weeks. Mathematics, for example, is the major, 
that is, the subject to which special attention is given, and that 
during another six or twelve weeks History is the major. A sub- 
ject taken as a major requires eight or ten hours' classroom work 
or lecture work a week. This is sufficient to lead the student to 



4>[ 59 l'^ 



become Intensely interested in the subject and to accomplish re- 
suits so clear and definite as to encourage him with the progress 
of his work. It permits the carrying along of another subject en- 
tirely different as a minor, or, for the time being, less important 
subject. This gives the needed variety, and the change from the 
one to the other furnishes what is always conceded to be neces- 
sary, a relaxation of the mind. 

.... By the plan proposed, the student, when he first takes 
hold of a subject, gives that amount of time and attention to it 
which will enable him to grasp it and to become acquainted with 
it in its details. When the end of the course has been reached he 
has acquired an interest in the subject, a knowledge of the sub- 
ject, and, what is of still more value, he has learned how to take 
hold of a subject in the way in which, during his entire future 
life, he will be able to take hold of things which from time to time 
present themselves 

It is proposed that the plan shall be less rigid in higher work 
than in lower work. It has been the practice to give the student 
in his younger years the largest possible number of subjects, grad- 
ually reducing the number until, when he has become strong in 
mind and mature in age, he is allowed to devote his entire atten- 
tion to work in a single department. The particular age which 
needed most protection has received least. It is proposed, there- 
fore, to adopt the plan rigidly in the academies of the University 
and likewise in the Academic College; but in the University Col- 
lege and graduate work, where students already begin to special- 
ize and to concentrate every effort without restriction or require- 
ment, and where different courses may be taken in the same de- 
partment, to require a less rigid application of the plan. 

Such was President Harper's conception of con- 
tinuous sessions, the Summer Quarter, and the classi- 
fication of courses as majors and minors. 



^[ 60 ]4> 



It is very clear from all this that he was contem- 
plating a great university. On this subject he went on 
to speak as follows in the unfinished report: 

It is expected by all who are interested that the university 
idea is to be emphasized. It is proposed to establish, not a college, 

but a university A large number of the professors have 

been selected with the understanding that their work is to be ex- 
clusively in the Graduate Schools. The organization, as it has 
been perfected, would be from the college point of view entirely a 
mistake. It has been the desire to estabhsh an institution which 
should not be a rival with the many colleges already in existence, 
but an institution which should help these colleges To as- 
sist these numerous colleges, to furnish them instructors who shall 
be able to do work of the highest order; to accomplish this pur- 
pose, the main energies of the institution have been directed to- 
ward graduate work The chief purpose of graduate work 

is, not to stock the student's mind with knowledge of what has 
already been accomplished in a given field, but rather so to train 
him that he himself may be able to push out along new lines of in- 
vestigation. Such work is, of course, of the most expensive char- 
acter. Laboratories and libraries and apparatus must be lavishly 
provided in order to offer the necessary opportunities. .... Here 
also is to be found the question of the effort to secure the best 
available men in the country as the heads and directors of de- 
partments. It is only the man who has made investigation who 
may teach others to investigate. Without this spirit in the in- 
structor and without his example students will never be led to 
undertake the work. Moreover, if the instructor is loaded down 
with lectures he will have neither time nor strength to pursue his 
investigations. Freedom from care, time for work, and liberty of 
thought are prime requisites in all such work. An essential ele- 
ment, moreover, is the opportunity of publishing results obtained 



^[ 6i ]4> 



in investigation. To this end it is provided that in each depart- 
ment there shall be published either a Journal or a series of sepa- 
rate studies which shall in each department embody the results of 
the work of the instructors in that department. It is expected 
that professors and other instructors will, at intervals, be excused 
entirely for a period from lecture work, in order that they may 
thus be able to give their entire time to the work of investigation. 
Promotion of younger men in the departments will depend more 
largely upon the results of their work as investigators than upon 
the efficiency of their teaching, although the latter will by no 
means be overlooked. In other words, it is proposed in this insti- 
tution to make the work of investigation primary, the work of 
giving instruction secondary. 

Such, then, were the plans on which President 
Harper organized the University of Chicago. They 
were made not for a college but for a university. The 
emphasis was to be placed on advanced graduate 
work. Professors were to be encouraged in pursuing 
original investigation. Students in advanced courses 
were to be disciplined and encouraged in research 
work. It was hoped that the University would be use- 
ful in extending the boundaries of knowledge. On this 
part of the plan a professor writes: 

Nowhere in this part of the country were research interests 
at all well represented, and the tremendous momentum given to 
the entire movement throughout the country by the emphasis of 
this work at the University of Chicago can hardly be exaggerated. 

President Harper was a man of large views. He 
planned the University for indefinite expansion. He 
believed in the future of Chicago, as one of the great- 



<^[ 62 ]4> 



est cities on the globe, and he planned and organized 
a university that should grow with, and be worthy of, 
the city whose name it bore. At the end of the first 
third of a century of its history his general plans con- 
tinued to shape the growth of the institution. The 
educational plan, novel, radical, a great educational 
experiment, modified in some particulars, but essen- 
tially the same, remained and promised to continue 
to remain the University's fundamental law. 



VI 

THE GOLLEgE "BECOMES 
^ U:NJVERSITr 

THE University, in its inception, was not a 
university but a college. Mr. Rockefeller's 
original subscription was for a college. The 
Education Society undertook only to found a well- 
equipped college. There were few, however, who sup- 
posed that the new institution would long remain a 
college only. A million dollars looked like an im- 
mense amount of money. Almost anything could be 
done with that tremendous sum. At the time the new 
institution was founded there were ten colleges under 
Baptist auspices between Ohio and the Rocky Moun- 
tains, and all together they did not have endowments 
aggregating more than half a million dollars. The pro- 
moters of Chicago felt that with twice that sum, more 
than half of it endowment, the new institution was 
rich to begin with. Their hopes and expectations were 
large. They incorporated, therefore, under the title of 
The University of Chicago. 

Not only was the new college, in this spirit of large 
expectation, named University, but the articles of in- 
corporation, which might be called the charter, con- 

M 63 W 



^[ 64 ]4> 



templated far more than a college. A college could 
have been conducted under its provisions. But it was 
framed for a university and for a university of the 
most comprehensive character. It said that the cor- 
poration was organized 

to establish and maintain a university, in which may be taught all 
branches of higher learning, and which may comprise and embrace 
separate departments for literature, law, medicine, music, tech- 
nology, the various branches of science, both abstract and applied, 
the cultivation of the fine arts, and all other branches of pro- 
fessional education which may properly be included within the 
purposes and objects of a university. 

While therefore the American Baptist Education 
Society and Mr. Rockefeller established a college, they 
at the same time opened the door for any possible en- 
largement and expansion. 

And enlargement and expansion were not slow in 
coming. Indeed the story of the expansion of the col- 
lege founded in 1890 into the University of Chicago 
of 1892 and thereafter reads like a creation of the im- 
agination of some educational dreamer. If it had been 
prophesied in advance it would have been laughed at 
as an impossible dream. Its rapidly succeeding events 
surprised the actors in them not less than they aston- 
ished the public. The board of trustees had held but 
one meeting, the articles of incorporation had hardly 
been approved by the Secretary of State at Spring- 
field, when the first great step in expansion was taken. 
In September, 1890, John D. Rockefeller made his 



^[ 65 ]4> 



first million-dollar contribution, the purpose of which 
was to make the college a university with Dr. Harper 
as its president. It took the following form: |8oopoo 
for non-professional graduate instruction; J 100,000 
for theological instruction in the Divinity School, and 
1 1 00,000 for the construction of buildings for that 
School, which was to be made a part of the University 
and transferred from Morgan Park to its grounds in 
the city. A well-equipped academy was to be estab- 
lished in the buildings of the Divinity School in Mor- 
gan Park. 

Thus many months before a building was planned, 
more than two years before the work of instruction 
began, the first great step in expansion was taken, and 
the name of the new institution received its justifica- 
tion. It became the University of Chicago. 

That the Theological Seminary should be made a 
part of the new University had been the desire and 
hope of the Seminary people from the beginning. The 
funds being now provided to bring about such a union 
and the trustees of both institutions being of the same 
mind, in April, 1891, the Theological Seminary was 
made the Divinity School of the University. It 
brought to the University during that institution's 
first year 204 students, assets amounting to nearly 
half a million dollars, and gave it its first professional 
school. 

To one who considers it attentively the plan of 



^[ 66 ]4> 



organization of the University will be seen to have 
been of itself a great step in expansion. It was an im- 
posing scheme. It was indeed the greatest forward 
step the University ever took. The genius of Presi- 
dent Harper never shone more brilliantly than in this 
great piece of constructive work. What Frederick 
Scott Oliver said of Alexander Hamilton might with 
equal truth be written of Dr. Harper: 

It was his policy and habit to overshoot the mark, to compel 
the weaker brethren to consider plans that were too heroic for 
their natural timidity, confident that the diminished fabric would 
still be of an ampler proportion than if it had arisen from mean 
foundations. 

The enthusiasm of the chosen leader and his recent 
achievement in securing from the Founder the mil- 
lion dollars had excited among the trustees the high- 
est expectations. They began to get a vision of a 
really great University. And the first feeling this vi- 
sion awakened among them was a doubt about the 
site. They began to feel that three blocks made too 
small a campus. They wanted at least another block 
which would not only increase the size of the site but 
greatly improve its shape, making it a solid square of 
four blocks. Mr. Hutchinson urged the purchase of 
the fourth block, saying that in all the public institu- 
tions of Chicago the mistake had been committed of 
making the plans on too small a scale and thus ham- 
pering future development. The block in question 



<¥[ 67 ]4> 



fronted south on the Midway Plaisance and east on 
University Avenue. Mr. Field wanted $150,000 for 
this fourth block, but offered to contribute $5,000 and 
after the payment of $40,000 down to give the Uni- 
versity ten years' time on the balance. The trustees 
hated to go into debt, but, Mr. Ryerson offering to 
contribute $25,000 toward the first payment, the block 
was bought. In September, 1891, the City Council 
vacated the streets and alleys running through the 
new campus, giving the University a compact site of 
four blocks, extending two blocks each way with a 
south front on the Midway Plaisance of eight hundred 
feet. 

This fourth step in expansion was one of great im- 
portance. While the trustees hesitated over it little 
could be done in any direction. The buildings could 
not be planned. Money could not be asked for, since 
no definite plans could be presented. The enlarging of 
the site changed everything. For the first time it be- 
came possible to make a general scheme for covering 
the site with buildings. The architect submitted such 
a scheme which excited great interest and admiration. 
It was looked upon by many as a dream of a far dis- 
tant future. A hundred years might see it realized! 
As a matter of fact one-third of that time saw the 
dream practically transmuted into enduring struc- 
tures of stone. Energy was at once released in effec- 
tive appeals for funds, and all the wheels of progress 



<l^[ 68 ]4> 



were speedily set in motion. Looking back after a 
third of a century on the growth of the University, one 
wonders that there should have been any difference of 
opinion about the necessity of enlarging the site to 
twenty-four acres — a site which in twenty years be- 
came a hundred acres. But it must be remembered 
that the question arose nearly two years before the in- 
stitution opened. It had no president, no professors, 
no students. It had no funds with which to buy addi- 
tional acres. The original site was not paid for, and 
no one knew where to begin in asking for money to 
enlarge it. It was felt that perhaps too great expecta- 
tions were cherished. There might not be the extraor- 
dinary growth and development expected. It is clear 
enough, long after the event, that, though the trus- 
tees hesitated, they decided the question with great 
wisdom. Itwasnotsoclear at the moment. The whole 
transaction illustrates the fact that the interests of the 
new institution were in the hands of careful, conserva- 
tive, and at the same time farsighted men. 

These movements toward enlargement came so 
fast that before one was completed another was under 
way. Sometimes three important steps in expansion 
were trying to get themselves taken at the same time. 
Thus while the taking over of the Divinity School was 
going forward, the enlargement of the site was being 
considered. And in January, 1891, before either of 
these important movements was concluded another 



#[ 69 ]4> 



great advance had been initiated. This was the move- 
ment, which, in a very few months, resulted in the Og- 
den Graduate School of Science. Dr. Harper was still 
in New Haven, and had not yet accepted the presi- 
dency. Indeed he was hesitating as to whether he 
could accept or must decline. At this very critical mo- 
ment he received a letter from Rev. Leighton Williams 
of New York which asked him to appoint a time to 
meet in that city a gentleman who wished to confer 
with him "in reference to the possibility of an endow- 
ment for scientific studies." 

Dr. Harper named so early a date that in less than 
a week the conference was held. The man who wished 
the interview was Andrew H. Green, one of the ex- 
ecutors and trustees under the will of William B. 
Ogden. It will be recalled that Mr. Ogden had been 
for many years a trustee of the first University of 
Chicago. He had been one of Chicago's leading citi- 
zens in the early history of the city and was its first 
mayor. He succeeded Stephen A. Douglas as chair- 
man of the board of trustees of the Old University 
and held that position until his death after a service 
of sixteen years. Mr. Ogden was much interested in 
the first University and was believed to cherish gen- 
erous intentions toward it. It was, therefore, peculiar- 
ly fitting that his executors, Mr. Green and Mrs. 
Ogden, should interest themselves in his name in the 
new University which had taken the name of the for- 



^[ 70 ]^ 



mer one, had adopted its alumni, and, commanding 
public confidence and giving every promise of perma- 
nence and growth as the old one had not, invited great 
endowments. Dr. Harper's first conference with Mr. 
Green was held on January 10, 1891. It resulted so 
favorably that two days later Mr. Green wrote to Dr. 
Harper asking if the trustees would accept an endow- 
ment of 1300,000 to $500,000 for a scientific school 
"to be named by the donors." 

On January 19, Dr. Harper assured Mr. Green that 
his proposal would be "most gladly and heartily ac- 
cepted by the board of trustees," and that it had 
"been one of the cherished plans of those most inti- 
mately connected with the organization to devote 
special attention to the encouragement of scientific re- 
search." In an elaborate discussion of the scope and 
conduct of the school, he proposed that it should be 
a graduate school of science, that fellowships for ad- 
vanced students be provided for as well as the support 
of professors, that provision be made for scientific in- 
vestigation as well as instruction, more emphasis to be 
put on the ability of professors to investigate than on 
their ability to teach, that the school should include 
"at least the departments of Physics, Chemistry, Bi- 
ology, Geology and Mineralogy, and Astronomy," 
that the professors be given every encouragement to 
publish the results of their investigations, and that 
"the entire graduate work of the University in the 



<^[ 71 1^ 



subjects mentioned be done in connection with this 
school of science." These suggestions were entirely 
acceptable to the executors of Mr. Ogden's estate, and 
the negotiation resulted in the designation to the Uni- 
versity of 70 per cent of the moneys to be devoted to 
benevolences under the terms of Mr. Ogden's will. 
This endowment became the basis of the Ogden (Grad- 
uate) School of Science, and in the end added nearly 
|6oo,ooo to the funds of the University. Such was the 
third movement toward expansion, inaugurated many 
months before the institution opened its doors to stu- 
dents, before, indeed, a professor was appointed or a 
student enrolled. 

In the summer and autumn of 1891 President 
Harper spent three months abroad. He returned in 
October with two important things calling for atten- 
tion. It had been determined that the University 
should begin the work of instruction October i, 1892. 
The erection of buildings had not yet begun. Not only 
must the necessary buildings be made ready, but a 
large sum of money must be raised for their construc- 
tion and equipment. When in September, 1890, Mr. 
Rockefeller gave a million dollars to make the college 
a university he had been assured that Chicago would 
quickly respond to his liberal gifts for the endowment 
of instruction by large contributions for buildings and 
equipment. More than eight months passed and very 
little was done in Chicago in the way of raising the 



^[ 72 ]4> 

additional funds which the Founder had been assured 
would be contributed. 

As the months passed. President Harper proceeded 
with his plans to so organize the University and man 
its various departments with professors that from the 
day it opened it should take its place in the first rank 
of American universities. It was a most ambitious 
program for a new institution, and demanded much 
larger funds than were in hand or in prospect. To 
meet this demand Mr. Rockefeller again came for- 
ward and with rare magnanimity gave another mil- 
lion dollars "to remain forever a further endowment 
for the University, the income to be used only for the 
current expenses." It was like him to give the million 
in bonds bearing accrued interest from December i, 
1 891, three months of interest prior to the date of the 
contribution. This again was a new and long step in 
advance taken seven months before the University 
was to open. 

The feeling in Chicago over this great contribu- 
tion was one of universal gratification. Marshall 
Field said: "Now Chicago must put a million dol- 
lars into the buildings of the University.'' The news- 
papers agreed with Mr. Field, the Post printing an 
editorial, "Chicago's Turn Next," to the effect that 
Chicago must now erect the buildings. This was pre- 
cisely the feeling the trustees desired to see. For a 
year they had been looking for the right time and the 



^[ 73 ]4> 



right way to begin a movement to raise a large fund 
for buildings and other necessities. It was not, how- 
ever, until February, 1892, that a real beginning was 
made by the offer of a chemical laboratory by Sidney 
A. Kent. On April 7 Marshall Field agreed to give 
1 1 00,000, on condition that a million was secured in 
sixty days. Two days later he extended the time to 
ninety days. With this extension the undertaking was 
felt to be well-nigh impossible of accomplishment. 
But even the impossible had to be attempted and we 
went about it with all the courage we could muster. 

When Mr. Field made his subscription, condi- 
tioned on the securing of a full million dollars by July 
10, 1892, the subscription of Sidney A. Kent for the 
Chemical Laboratory, already made, was to be counted 
as a part of this sum. Mr. Kent generously increased 
his pledge to $235,000. Much quiet work was done 
during May, and $50,000 was given by Mrs. Elizabeth 
Kelly and $18,000 by other women for halls for wom- 
en students. Early in June came a great subscription 
of $150,000 from Silas B. Cobb, and immediately after 
a cablegram from Martin A. Ryerson, who was abroad, 
for a similar amount. These great pledges were quick- 
ly followed by $50,000 from Mrs. Nancy A. Foster 
and hope ran high in all hearts. George C. Walker 
gave $130,000. On June 30, with ten days to go, we 
had $860,000. During the next two days some small 
subscriptions were found, and at the end of the week. 



^[ 74 ]^ 



on July 2, the workers were sitting in the University- 
office in a somewhat subdued frame of mind. It was 
about four o'clock and we were saying that, as Sun- 
day was the next day and Monday the Fourth of July 
we had only five working days left. At that moment 
a messenger from Mrs. Jerome Beecher came in and 
said that she had sent him to say that she might be 
depended on for $50,000. Seldom have men been so 
uplifted. They were inspired with new hope and new 
purpose. President Harper went at once and called 
on Mrs. A. J. Snell, and three days later received from 
her $50,000. The last day of the canvass was Satur- 
day, July 9, and when on that day the trustees met, 
the president was able to announce that a little over 
a million dollars had been subscribed. To crown the 
work Mr. Hutchinson read a paper signed by twenty 
of the leading business men of the city, pledging them- 
selves pro rata, for any deficiency up to one hundred 
thousand dollars. The following were the names at- 
tached to this guaranty: H. N. Higinbotham, Charles 
L. Hutchinson, H. H. Kohlsaat, Henry H. Getty, 
Ferdinand W. Peck, Clarence I. Peck, Charles Coun- 
selman, E. Buckingham, Henry Botsford, Ernest A. 
Hamill, Byron L. Smith, Edwin G. Foreman, William 
T. Baker, T. J. Lefens, John J. Mitchell, A. A. Sprague, 
O. S. A. Sprague, A. C. Bartlett, John R. Walsh, 
Henry A. Rust. This paper had been prepared and 
circulated without the knowledge of President Harper 



^[ 75 ]^ 



and the secretary. It came to the president's knowl- 
edge a few days before the end, but only spurred him 
to more energetic effort. And thus was this unprece- 
dented undertaking accomplished and the million 
dollars raised in ninety days. This fund provided the 
material expansion corresponding to the educational 
enlargement made possible by the Rockefeller endow- 
ments and the Ogden designation. 

These steps in expansion were not successive and 
orderly steps. They came so fast that they crowded 
upon and overlapped each other. They were all taken 
within twenty-one months. In that brief space of 
time, and before the doors were opened for students, 
the college with seventeen acres as a site, $ 1,000,000, 
and provision for one building, had developed into the 
University of Chicago with an enlarged and much 
improved site, $4,000,000, and provision for ten build- 
ings, with a faculty of one hundred and twenty 
teachers and with an Academy, a College, two Gradu- 
ate Schools, and a Divinity School. 



VII 

STUDENTS ^PPLT AU^ A 
y^ACULTT IS SECURED 



THE men most interested in founding the Uni- 
versity were enthusiasts, dreamers of dreams. 
But their dreams and visions fell far short of 
the reality. I wrote to Mr. Rockefeller in January, 
1887: "Of all places in the world this is the location 
plainly designated by nature for a great university." 
Dr. Harper, then a professor in Yale, in indorsing this 
letter, wrote: "It is safe to make the prediction that 
in ten years such a university would have more stu- 
dents, if rightly conducted, than Yale or Harvard has 
today." At that time, 1887, Harvard had 1,688 stu- 
dents in all departments, and Yale had 1,245. -^^• 
Harper's prophecy, had it been made public at the 
time it was written, would have been regarded as the 
dream of an enthusiast. The number of students in 
Yale and Harvard was regarded as wonderful, and 
quite unapproachable by other institutions. They had 
reached their great attendance only after some two 
centuries of history. It is an interesting commentary 
on Dr. Harper's prophecy that in its fourth year the 
University of Chicago enrolled 1,850 students, or 127 



=^** 




Rosenwald Hall and Walker 
Museum 



^[ 77 ]^ 



more than were enrolled at Harvard in 1886-87. If 
Dr. Harper had written: "In ten years such a univer- 
sity will have nearly three times as many students as 
Harvard now has, and nearly four times as many as 
Yale now has," he would have been a true prophet. 
But it is also true that if he had made such a prophecy 
he would have been looked upon as something worse 
than an irresponsible enthusiast and dreamer. 

No effort was made to secure the students for the 
first year. The first students gathered themselves. 
For some reason the project of a new institution of 
learning in Chicago had made a remarkable impres- 
sion on the imagination of the public. This impres- 
sion was as widespread as it was pronounced. Ordi- 
narily the students of institutions come, for the most 
part, from their immediate vicinity. But the first 
year's students of the University of Chicago, like those 
of every succeeding year, came from every part of the 
United States and from many foreign countries. When 
the enrolment for the first year was made up it was 
found that thirty-three states were represented and 
fifteen foreign states and provinces. 

It is worthy of record that the first mention of in- 
quiries from students occurs in a letter written in 
September, 1890, less than four months after the first 
subscription had been completed, and more than two 
years before the University opened its doors. On Oc- 
tober 5, 1890, I wrote, "We get the name of a new 



<^[ 78 ]4> 



candidate for admission every day." And this was no 
temporary outbreak of student correspondence. It 
not only continued, but began gradually to increase. 
In January, 1891, the inquiries from possible students 
were two or three every day. By July i, 1891, the 
number amounted to about three hundred. In the 
autumn of that year, W, B. Owen, then a student in 
the Theological Seminary at Morgan Park, afterward 
a member of the University faculties, and still later 
principal of the Chicago Normal School, gathered 
about him nearly one hundred pupils whom he was 
preparing for the University. Meantime, inquiring 
students continued to report to my office in increasing 
numbers. There were twenty on February 28, 1892, 
the largest number heard from in any one day up to 
that time. It was found in the end that two things 
saved the University from being overwhelmed by 
numbers the first year. These were the high standard 
fixed and the requirement that all first-year entering 
students must pass an examination. Very many ex- 
pected to be admitted on certificates from high 
schools and academies. When they found they could 
not do this, and read the requirements for admission 
in Official Bulletin No. 2, they decided to go elsewhere, 
or to defer their entrance until they were prepared to 
take the examination. Correspondence was had with 
nearly 3,000 young men and women who expressed a 
desire to enter. 



^[ 79 ]^ 



This is the story of the gathering of the students 
of the first year. As was said at the beginning, they 
gathered themselves. They were not sought. They 
came of their own motion. Had they not been dis- 
couraged or absolutely shut out by the severe exami- 
nation tests the attendance of the first year would 
have been doubled. It amounted to 742. 

The gathering of the first faculty is another story. 
The members of the teaching staff had to be looked 
for, and by patient inquiry found. The new Uni- 
versity had made such an appeal to the imagination 
of teachers as well as of the public that there were, 
naturally enough, many applicants for positions, but 
with the exception of a few very desirable men these 
applications were not treated seriously. President 
Harper aimed high and from the outset fixed his mind 
on professors in the leading universities of the coun- 
try. As a matter of course these men were the very 
ones — it may perhaps be said, the only ones — who 
were almost immovable. Why should such men move ? 
They had positions for life, into which they had grown, 
where they had every possible tie to hold them — 
homes, libraries, laboratories, friends. They were, for 
the most part, in old, great, famous institutions, in 
whose distinction they participated. Why should they 
change? Particularly, why should eminent teachers, 
thus situated, enter on a "hazard of new fortunes'' 
by going to a new institution, organized on a new edu- 



^[ 80 ]4> 



cational plan, "launched upon uncharted seas and with 
new methods of navigation," an institution whose 
financial basis was wholly out of proportion to the 
vastness of the educational scheme, and whose future, 
therefore, was uncertain ? It seems strange that many 
of the best men in the country, notwithstanding the 
fact that all these things were true, were moved by 
President Harper's approaches. There was a strong 
power of appeal in the plan and in the young presi- 
dent himself. But no sooner did it become known that 
professors had been approached and were thinking of 
Chicago than every influence was brought to bear to 
hold them in their places and set them against the new 
institution. Chicago was declared to be a "bubble." 
Its funds were ridiculed as totally inadequate. It was 
prophesied that salaries would not be paid. Under 
these circumstances it is not surprising that serious 
difficulties were encountered in securing the men Dr. 
Harper wanted. But he was eminently fitted to over- 
come these difficulties and secure the sort of teachers 
he had set his heart on. He had high ideals of what a 
university professor should be. He must be a teacher, 
but first and foremost he must be a scholar, in love 
with learning, with a passion for research, an investi- 
gator who could produce, and, if what he produced 
was worthy, would wish to publish. President Harper 
was endowed with a kind of intuitive recognition of a 
scholar, which enabled him to select a faculty of schol- 



^[ 8i ]4> 



ars. He had, moreover, a singularly judicial mind, and 
in considering possible teachers he weighed the evi- 
dence on both sides with insight and justice. In deal- 
ing with those he wanted to engage for his faculty he 
manifested a consideration of their interests, a friend- 
liness and sympathy that disarmed opposition, a per- 
sonal charm, a power to make his theme interesting, 
and a contagious enthusiasm, that won even the 
reluctant. As a result of these unusual qualities, 
President Harper made few mistakes in his first 
faculty. 

I cannot here even mention the names of all its 
members. But there were some appointments which 
are of special interest and cannot well be passed over. 
Early in 1892 Harry Pratt Judson, later president of 
the University, but at that time a professor in the 
University of Minnesota, was persuaded to accept a 
professorship in History and the deanship of the col- 
leges and to begin his work the first of June. He came 
at that time to assist President Harper in the tre- 
mendous task of organizing the work of the Univer- 
sity in preparation for the opening in October. 

The first heads of departments, secured after a 
long and hard struggle, were William Gardner Hale 
and J. Laurence Laughlin, both of Cornell. Mr. Hale 
became head professor of Latin and Mr. Laughlin of 
Political Economy. With these men secured, diffi- 
culties began to disappear. Under Mr. Laughlin's ad- 



^[ 82 ]4> 



vice Adolf C. Miller, since distinguished in public life, 
also of Cornell, was almost immediately added to his 
department. 

One of the first men approached by Dr. Harper 
was Dr. Albion W. Small, president of Colby Uni- 
versity. Fourteen months after the negotiation be- 
gan. President Small was appointed head professor 
of Sociology and accepted. At the same time, Janu- 
ary 29, 1892, the first considerable number of other 
appointments was made, among them James H. 
Tufts, later vice-president of the University, in Phi- 
losophy; William D. Mac Clin tock, in English; George 
S. Goodspeed, in Comparative Religion and Ancient 
History; Starr W. Cutting, later head of his depart- 
ment, in German; A. A. Stagg, director of Physical 
Culture and Athletics; Frank J. Miller, in Latin; 
Carl D. Buck, later head of the department, in San- 
skrit and Comparative Philology. 

On February 4, 1892, four notable appointments 
were made: Hermann E. von Hoist, head professor 
of History; Richard Green Moulton, University Ex- 
tension professor of English Literature; Emil G. 
Hirsch, professor of Rabbinical Literature and Phi- 
losophy; and Ezekiel G. Robinson, professor in Apolo- 
getics and Christian Ethics. Mr. von Hoist, author of 
a well-known constitutional history of the United 
States,was a professor in the University of Freiburg 
in Baden, Germany, and his acquisition was regarded 



<^[ 83 ]4> 



by the president with great satisfaction. Mr. Terry, 
professor in History, had aided in securing him. Mr. 
Hirsch was the able and popular rabbi of the Sinai 
Congregation of Chicago and most generously con- 
tributed such services as his duties to his congrega- 
tion and the public permitted. Mr. Robinson had been 
president of the Rochester Theological Seminary and 
later of Brown University, and came to give the clos- 
ing years of a distinguished career to the new Uni- 
versity. Mr. Moulton had come, in 1890, on a tempo- 
rary visit to the United States, to enlist interest in the 
University Extension movement. He met Dr. Harper 
in Christmas week in Washington and in a single con- 
versation was induced to promise a year's work in the 
new University. His one year became a life-engage- 
ment. Nathaniel Butler, once a member of the facul- 
ty of the Old University, was brought from the Uni- 
versity of Illinois and became acting director of Uni- 
versity Extension. 

At a meeting of the trustees held March 19, 1892, 
E. Hastings Moore, of Northwestern University, was 
elected professor of Mathematics and later became 
head of his department. At the same meeting the 
first incident of an interesting story occurred. Charles 
O. Whitman, of Clark University, was elected head 
professor of Biology. An exceptionally able group of 
scientific professors was gathered at Clark and it 
transpired that, owing to unsatisfactory internal con- 



^[ 84 ]4> 



ditions, they wished to leave and accept favorable 
openings elsewhere. The opportunity to make the sci- 
entific departments equal to those of the leading uni- 
versities of the country was irresistible. Mr. Whit- 
man drove a hard bargain with President Harper in 
the things he required in the way of buildings, equip- 
ment, and running expenses. That distinguished 
physicist A. A. Michelson, who was one of the ac- 
quisitions from Clark, with that modesty which has 
always characterized him, made no terms. In this 
group of professors were Nef, Donaldson, Mall, 
Jacques Loeb, and others. 

In making these fifteen appointments the presi- 
dent was tempted beyond what he was able to bear 
and beyond what his resources could bear. But, his 
power of resistance having broken down before this 
splendid temptation, he was left quite helpless before 
one which immediately followed. He learned that 
Thomas C. Chamberhn, president of the University 
of Wisconsin, having, during his five years at Madi- 
son, accomplished the task of reorganization he had 
set for himself and doubled the number of students, 
was weary of administrative work, which, indeed, he 
had undertaken reluctantly, and would, perhaps, wel- 
come a call to the headship of a Department of Ge- 
ology, and that his professor of Geology at Madison, 
Rollin D. Salisbury, who had already been recom- 
mended in the highest terms, would follow his chief. 



^[ 85 ]4> 



George C. Walker, one of the trustees, had agreed to 
provide a museum building which might be used also 
as the laboratory of Geology, and the president warm- 
ly urging action. President Chamberlin on May 4, 
1892, was appointed, the appointment of Mr. Salis- 
bury following in June. These appointments from 
Clark and Wisconsin established the reputation of the 
scientific departments and added greatly to the pres- 
tige of the new University. They fixed its place in the 
public mind as the peer of the best institutions in the 
country. 

Professor E. D. Burton, who subsequently be- 
came president of the University, was one of the late 
appointments. He was a professor in Newton Theo- 
logical Institution. The president had long been urg- 
ing him to take the chair of New Testament, but could 
get no encouragement. What appeared to be a final 
refusal in March, 1892, greatly discouraged him. 
But he had an extraordinary gift of persistence and 
persuasion. The negotiation was renewed and in the 
end Professor Burton was secured. 

One of the happy appointments of the first year 
was that of Charles R. Henderson in Social Science, 
later University chaplain, a position in which he won 
all hearts. 

There were nine women in the first faculty. Alice 
Freeman Palmer, former president of Wellesley was, 
after long negotiation, secured as dean of women 



^[ 86 ]4> 



and with her was associated Marion Talbot, who be- 
came Mrs. Palmer's successor. 

One rather extraordinary fact about President 
Harper's labors in securing a faculty must be men- 
tioned. He sought big men. He wanted the very best 
and ablest, the most distinguished scholars and teach- 
ers he could find. The more eminent they were the 
more he wanted them. He made every effort to se- 
cure Remsen, of Johns Hopkins, but in this case his 
own university could not let him go and made him its 
next president. It was because he believed von Hoist 
was a great man and because he had an international 
reputation that President Harper wanted him in his 
faculty. Because he wanted the best he did not hesi- 
tate to try for the presidents of colleges and universi- 
ties. It is not known just how many of these he at- 
tempted to bring into the first faculty. It is known 
that he failed with some whom he made extraordinary 
efforts to get. As the first faculty was finally consti- 
tuted nine of its members had been presidents of high- 
er institutions: Ezekiel G. Robinson, Brown; George 
W. Northrup, Baptist Union Theological Seminary; 
Galusha Anderson, the Old University of Chicago and 
Denison; Albion W. Small, Colby; Thomas C. Cham- 
berlin, Wisconsin; FrankHn Johnson, Ottawa; Alice 
Freeman Palmer, Wellesley; and Howard B. Grose, 
South Dakota. To these names was soon added that 
of John M. Coulter, Lake Forest. His friends were 



^[ 87 ]4> 



never able to detect the slightest trace of jealousy in 
President Harper. He rejoiced in the growing reputa- 
tion of members of the faculty as though it were his 
own. Every distinction they received gave him pleas- 
ure. Every book they published was a source of satis- 
faction, and the greater the book the greater was his 
satisfaction. He was proud of the honors they re- 
ceived and he watched the development of growing 
scholars with joy and pride. 

By the first of June, 1892, we had about reached 
the limits of our resources for appointments and, 
understanding that very few more would be made, as 
secretary of the board I wrote for publication: 

The last gift of one million dollars, made by Mr. Rockefeller 
in February, has made it possible for the University to organize 
its faculties in a somewhat complete way. In all departments 
sixty instructors have now been elected. The number will be in- 
creased by ten or twelve additional names, and then, so far as 
the faculties are concerned, the University will be ready to re- 
ceive its students. 

In my simplicity I thought I was giving out authori- 
tative information. I was, as it turned out, only an- 
nouncing the number of instructors for whom finan- 
cial provision had been made. The president, feeling 
driven by necessity, recommended, and the trustees, 
under the same spur, appointed, not ten or twelve 
more, but sixty. Appointments continued to be made 
at almost every meeting until October 25, nearly a 



month after the University opened. Instead of the 
seventy-two I had stated would complete the faculty 
of the first year, when the appointments were ended, 
the number, including all ranks, was found to be 120. 
It was a great venture of faith. It was probably the 
largest faculty with which a university ever began its 
work. It was certainly one of the best. His first 
faculty gave the president great satisfaction. It was 
a body of scholars, teachers, and investigators. As 
September, 1892, drew to a close its members came 
together in Chicago. On October i, its first meeting 
was held and a general policy of work outlined. Thus 
the good ship was manned, passengers were on 
board, and it was under way. May it have a prosper- 
ous voyage! 



VIII 

THE U:NiIVERSITr "BEgiNS 
TO "BUILT) 



ONE of the very first necessities that confront- 
ed the new University was the provision of 
buildings in which to conduct its work. At 
the first meeting of the board of trustees, therefore, 
a committee on buildings and grounds was appointed, 
with Martin A. Ryerson as chairman. Before it could 
do much, however, its activities were for a time 
brought to a standstill by the question of enlarging 
the site from three blocks to four. This matter having 
been finally decided and the site enlarged by the pur- 
chase of an additional block of ground and changed 
in shape into a compact square, two blocks wide and 
two long, with the streets and alleys vacated, the com- 
mittee, in the spring of 189 1, was able to go forward. 
Many important and perplexing questions, however, 
at once arose. Should the structures be small and 
cheap, or should they be large, dignified, and worthy? 
What material should be used in their construction? 
Should it be stone or brick? If stone, should granite 
be chosen, or could something as attractive, and, 
while durable, not so expensive, be found? What 



^[ 90 ]4> 



should be the arrangement of the buildings on the 
site, and where should the first buildings be located? 
And above all, what style of architecture should be 
adopted? 

Fortunately for the young University, it had 
among its trustees the very best men in Chicago to 
consider and determine these important questions. 
Henry Ives Cobb was chosen as architect and began 
to work on the problems of the style of architecture 
to be adopted, and the general arrangement of the 
buildings on the twenty-four acres of the site. On 
June 25 he submitted to the committee an elaborate 
sketch embodying his plan for the disposition of the 
buildings on the entire site. It was, in reality, a pic- 
turCj giving a bird's-eye view of the University as it 
would appear with all the buildings completed. It 
made a most imposing and attractive picture. It was 
not intended to represent the buildings as each would 
appear in solid brick or stone, so much as to indicate 
the general arrangement and distribution of the vari- 
ous structures. It divided the site into six quadrangles, 
each surrounded with buildings, leaving in the center 
a seventh, the main quadrangle, giving unity to the 
whole design. While this general plan for the group- 
ing of the buildings was not formally adopted, the 
construction of the buildings was begun and contin- 
ued, so far as the original site of four blocks was con- 
cerned, in accordance with it. The style of architec- 




<m. 




m 



-r^^ 



The Women's Halls 



^[ 91 ]4> 

ture finally adopted was English Gothic, and Gothic, 
with modifications of that style, continued to deter- 
mine the construction of all the educational buildings. 
Plans and specifications for a lecture hall and dormi- 
tory were prepared by the architect and on Novem- 
ber 16, 1 891, Mr. Ryerson submitted for the commit- 
tee on buildings the following recommendations: 

that blue Bedford stone be adopted as the material for the erec- 
tion of the buildings, the bids showing that the difference in cost 
between this material and pressed brick with stone trimmings is 
but five or six thousand dollars for each building; also that the 
committee be authorized to let, and the proper officers be author- 
ized to sign, the contracts for the erection of a lecture hall and 
one dormitory, at a cost, for the two buildings, not to exceed 
^325,000. 

The report was adopted, and at the same meeting 
two additional important steps were taken. It was 
voted that the committee be authorized to prepare 
plans for a library building, a museum, a gymnasium, 
and a dormitory for women. The other important 
action was the adoption of the recommendation of the 
Finance Committee that an immediate effort be made 
to raise one million dollars to be expended on the 
grounds, buildings, and general equipment of the Uni- 
versity. The story of this million dollars has been told 
in a preceding chapter. 

On November 23 the contracts for the two build- 
ings authorized were let, and ground was broken for 



^[ 92 ]4> 



them three days later, November 26, 1891. There 
were no public exercises. The workmen gathered, the 
word was given, and the work began. The plow en- 
tered the ground near the corner of Ellis Avenue and 
the Midway Plaisance, where the first dormitories 
were to stand. Within three weeks more than a hun- 
dred men were at work on the foundations, and be- 
fore January i, 1892, these were completed. As has 
been said these first buildings were a lecture hall and 
dormitory. The dormitory was that one contemplated 
in the $100,000 contributed by Mr. Rockefeller for the 
Divinity School. It was in reality three buildings. 
The central one was five stories in height with rooms 
for ninety-two students. North and south of this, 
separated from it by fire walls, were buildings of four 
stories, each with accommodations for forty-six stu- 
dents. The length of the three structures was 270 
feet. The northern section was assigned to students 
in the Graduate Schools. It was called at first Gradu- 
ate, later North, Hall, and the central and southern 
sections were known as Middle and South Divinity 
halls. Later Graduate was named Blake Hall, Middle 
Divinity, Gates Hall, and South Divinity, Goodspeed 
Hall. Although it had been hoped that these dormi- 
tories could be built for j5 150,000, their cost proved to 
be J 1 72,806. The lecture hall, begun at the same time 
with the dormitories, was located on Ellis Avenue 
south of Fifty-eighth Street, and was 160 feet long, 



^[ 93 ]^ 



the united buildings thus forming an unbroken front 
of 434 feet. The width of the lecture hall was 80 
feet. It contained over sixty rooms, divided into 
eleven departmental suites of from three to six rooms 
each, the central room of each suite being intended for 
the departmental library. The plans also provided for 
a chapel or assembly room for temporary use, taking 
for the purpose the north third of the first floor, also a 
general lecture-room that would accommodate about 
two hundred, and offices for the president, deans, and 
other officials. These buildings were to be ready for 
occupancy by September i, 1892, but it was some 
weeks later before the last of the workmen left them. 

Even on October i. Opening Day, there was still 
much to be done. 

Before the completion of the lecture hall, Silas B. 
Cobb, one of the early settlers of Chicago, made a 
contribution of ? 150,000, which later was appropri- 
ated for this building. I well remember the time and 
the circumstances of the promise of this great sum. 
The last day of the second month of the three Mr. 
Field had given us for raising $1,000,000 had come 
and we seemed to be at the end of our resources. The 
family of Mr. Cobb had been encouraging him to help 
us, but they now told us they feared the decision must 
go over to the autumn. I then told President Harper 
we must take the matter into our own hands and go 
and see Mr. Cobb. He said, "Mr. Walker warned me 



^[ 94 ]^ 



against it, but we will go if you will take the responsi- 
bility." We went, our appeal was received cordially, 
and four days later his subscription in writing was 
received for 1 150,000. Later he gave $15,000 more 
and this first lecture hall received his name. It cost 
$221,956. For more than twenty years Cobb Lecture 
Hall was the center of University life. 

Every effort had been made during the million- 
dollars-in-ninety-days campaign to secure funds for 
a gymnasium, a library building, and a building for 
the University Press, but without success. As it 
was imperative that provision be made at once for 
these needs, it was decided to erect a temporary build- 
ing in the center of the northeast quadrangle, the site 
of what later became Hutchinson Court. It was built 
as cheaply as possible, without permanent founda- 
tions, of common brick, one story in height and with 
a flat roof. The roof was supported by trusses stand- 
ing above it, framed of large timbers, appearing like 
monstrous sawhorses holding it down. The building 
was begun in September and finished in December, 
1892. It was large, being 100 feet wide and 250 feet 
long. The north end was fitted up for the physical 
culture work of women. In a portion of the east front 
was the printing-office of the University Press. South 
of this was a large room where the General Library 
was placed. The western section, south of the wom- 
en's gymnasium, formed the men's gymnasium. This 



^[ 95 ]^ 



was divided into a locker-room and the gymnasium 
proper. Around the walls of the latter, a dozen feet 
above the floor was a running-track, at that time "the 
best indoor running track in the West, twelve laps to 
the mile.'* On this track many great contests took 
place before excited throngs of students and other en- 
thusiasts crowding the floor below. This temporary 
structure cost $25,208, and was a good investment. 
Although constructed very cheaply, and, contrasted 
with the other buildings, a blot on the landscape, it 
served its generation of students most usefully. When 
the noble tower group of buildings and the splendid 
Bartlett Gymnasium were planned its day was over. 
In the spring of 190 1 the northern part of the building, 
the women's gymnasium, was torn down to make 
room for the foundations of Hutchinson Hall and the 
Mitchell Tower, and the summer of 1903 saw the rest 
of it demolished and removed to give an unobstructed 
approach to the Reynolds Club House and Mandel 
Assembly Hall, which were then approaching com- 
pletion. 

In connection with the raising of the million-dollar 
building fund, four women contributed $50,000 each 
for dormitories. The contribution of Mrs. Henrietta 
Snell was designated by her for a dormitory for men. 
She wished it to be a memorial of her husband, Amos 
J. Snell. Contracts for the erection of Snell Hall were 
made in August, 1892, and the hall was occupied by 



<^[ 96 ]4> 



students in April, 1893. Though built for men, it was 
assigned for the Spring Quarter of that year to the 
women, whose halls were not ready. There was no 
Summer Quarter in 1893, and on the opening of the 
Autumn Quarter the men came into their own. Snell 
Hall was located on Ellis Avenue south of Fifty- 
seventh Street. It housed sixty students and cost 
153,586. During the first ten years it was the only 
dormitory assigned to undergraduate men. 

In May, 1892, Mrs. Elizabeth G. Kelly intimated 
a wish to give ^50,000 for a dormitory for women, if 
she could receive 5 per cent per annum on that amount 
during her life, and an agreement to this effect was 
made. Kelly Hall was completed in the summer of 
1893 and occupied by students October i of that year. 
Its cost was 162,149. It had rooms for forty-two stu- 
dents and included a parlor and dining-room. 

Soon after the contribution of Mrs. Kelly, Mrs. 
Mary Beecher gave $50,000 for a dormitory for wom- 
en on a similar agreement, viz., that she receive 5 per 
cent per annum on that sum during the remainder of 
her life. The construction of Beecher Hall went on in 
conjunction with that of Kelly, and it also was fin- 
ished in the summer of 1893 and opened to students 
October i of that year. The two halls were of the same 
size, accommodated the same number of students, 
and their cost was substantially the same. 

It was in June, 1892, that a subscription of $50,000 



<^[ 97 ]^ 



was received from Mrs. Nancy S. Foster for a third 
dormitory for women. It was decided to locate the 
hall on the northwest corner of University Avenue and 
Fifty-ninth Street, and to make it five instead of four 
stories high, as Beecher and Kelly were. It being 
found that it could not be built for the sum subscribed, 
Mrs. George E. Adams, Mrs. Foster's daughter, an- 
nounced to the board that if the University would go 
forward and erect Foster Hall her mother would pay 
the cost of its erection. On this encouragement the 
contracts were let and the beautiful building was con- 
structed. It was finished in October, 1893. When in 
1900 it became desirable to enlarge the hall, Mrs. 
Foster most generously authorized the trustees to do 
this and send the bill to her. Her gifts amounted, in 
the end, to $83,433, the full cost of the building. The 
hall provided a home for sixty-eight women stu- 
dents. 

No one was more stirred by the campaign to raise a 
million dollars in ninety days than George C. Walker. 
Being a trustee, he knew all the necessities of the 
situation and gave the funds for building a museum. 
He was moved to provide a museum because of his 
lifelong interest in natural history and because the 
great World's Fair was about to be held in Chi- 
cago and a large amount of scientific material would 
be available if a fireproof home was provided for it. 
The Walker Museum was dedicated in connection 



^[ 98 ]^ 



with the Fourth Convocation, October 2, 1893, one 
year after the opening of the University. It was used 
not only as a museum, but for twenty-two years as a 
lecture hall for Geology, Geography, Anthropology, 
and Paleontology. It was only then that the building 
of Rosenwald, a lecture hall in immediate connection 
with it, permitted the museum to be wholly devoted 
to the purposes for which it had been constructed. 

The first large response to the appeal for a fund 
of $1,000,000 for buildings in the spring of 1892 was 
made by Sidney A. Kent, who proposed on March 17 
to build a chemical laboratory. Although he fixed the 
limit of $150,000 as the cost of the building, he did 
not adhere to this limit. All the details connected with 
the work of construction were submitted to him and 
received his approval. He paid the bills as they came 
in, and the laboratory cost him in the end $202,270. 
He also generously furnished the equipment at a cost 
of $33,000. That the building might be made as com- 
plete and perfect as possible, under the most compe- 
tent expert advice. Professor Ira Remsen was asked 
and generously consented to come from Baltimore 
and assist the architect in working out the general 
plan and details of the laboratory. The building was 
formally dedicated and turned over to the University 
at the Fifth Convocation, January i, 1894. A confer- 
ence of professors of chemistry from other universities 
and colleges was held. The dedicatory exercises took 



<^[ 99 ]4> 



place in the evening. As the procession entered the 
main hall of the building it passed a bronze tablet on 
the wall, the work of Lorado Taft, in the center of 
which was a bust of Mr. Kent, the donor of the 
building, in bas-relief, with this inscription below: 

THIS BUILDING IS DEDICATED TO A FUNDAMENTAL 
SCIENCE, IN THE HOPE THAT IT WILL BE A FOUNDA- 
TION STONE LAID BROAD AND DEEP FOR THE TEM- 
PLE OF KNOWLEDGE IN WHICH AS WE LIVE WE 
HAVE LIFE. 

Sidney A. Kent 

Mr. Kent crowned his beneficence by providing in 
his will a fund of ^50,000 for the care of the labora- 
tory. The buildingwas named Kent Chemical Labora- 
tory. 

When the raising of the million dollars in ninety 
days was begun, Martin A. Ryerson was abroad. He 
was, however, kept informed of the progress of the 
undertaking. He was very deeply interested in its 
success and on June 13 sent a cablegram from Paris, 
saying, "If the million is raised, I will contribute 
1150,000 for purpose I will designate." On Novem- 
ber 7, 1892, he wrote to the trustees, "I now express 
to you my desire that my subscription be applied to 
the erection of a building to be used as a physical 
laboratory, and to be known as the Ryerson Physical 
Laboratory, in memory of my father, the late Martin 
Ryerson, said building to be situated on the north 



HARPER COLLEGE LIBRARY 
PALATINE, ILLINOIS 60067 



<#[ loo ]4> 



side of, and facing south on the central quadrangle, 
east of Kent Chemical Hall." 

Martin Ryerson, the father of the donor, had been 
a leading business man of Chicago engaged in the man- 
ufacture and sale of lumber. He died in 1887, only 
three years prior to the founding of the University. 
When the laboratory was erected Mr. Ryerson placed 
in the main hall of the first floor a bronze tablet bear- 
ing this inscription: 

PHYSICAL 

LABORATORY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 

ERECTED IN MEMORY OF 

MARTIN RYERSON 

BY HIS SON 
A.D. 1893 ^ 

The cost of the laboratory was 1200,371. To this 
contribution Mr. Ryerson added the equipment and 
furniture of the building. For many years he con- 
tinued to give a great many thousands of dollars for 
additional equipment, apparatus, and supplies. Fin- 
ished and occupied at the beginning of 1894, the build- 
ing was dedicated July 2, 1894. The formal presenta- 
tion and opening of the new laboratory was the crown- 
ing event of the Convocation week. Eminent physi- 
cists from other universities were present. The exer- 
cises of dedication were held in the evening. The en- 



^[ loi ]4> 



tire building was open to the large number of friends 
who were present. 

One more building belongs to this earlier period. 
For a number of years the president lived in a rented 
house on Blackstone (then Washington) Avenue. It 
was three-quarters of a mile from the University, 
and the trustees felt that the president should have 
a permanent home on the grounds of the University. 
They therefore purchased lots on the northeast corner 
of University Avenue and Fifty-ninth Street, and in 
1895 built the president's house at a cost of $40,000. 

At the time of its completion, less than four years 
had passed since the turning of the first furrow for 
the foundations of the first buildings. It may amuse 
the reader to recall that in asking Mr. Field for the 
site I had written him a letter with the approval of 
my co-laborer. Dr. Gates, assuring him that we would 
agree to expend at least |2oo,ooo in buildings and im- 
provements within five years. Three years and a half 
had now passed since the making of that rash prom- 
ise. By the generosity of Mr. Rockefeller and the peo- 
ple of Chicago contributions had been made which 
had enabled the University to erect thirteen buildings 
which with their equipment and furniture had cost 
about $1,450,000. 



IX 

THE 0PE:A(ING TEATi^ 



THE first day of October, 1892, that great day 
so long anticipated, in preparation for which 
so many plans had been made and so many 
labors performed, the day on which the doors of the 
University were to be opened for receiving students 
and beginning that work of investigation and instruc- 
tion which it was hoped would end only with the end 
of time — that great day was drawing near. The night 
before, President Harper and Dr. Judson worked to- 
gether until midnight on the details of the opening. 
When all was finished the president, as Dr. Judson re- 
lates, threw himself back on the sofa and said: "I won- 
der if there will be a single student here tomorrow!" 

After much consideration it had been decided that 
the University should begin its work as simply and 
unpretentiously as possible. At 8 130 Saturday morn- 
ing October i, 1892, the bells sounded in Cobb Hall, 
the professors were in their classrooms, the classes 
were in their places, and the exercises proceeded 
throughout the morning as smoothly as if the Uni- 
versity had been in session twenty years. 

^[ 102 W 



<#[ I03 ]4> 



The chapel occupying the northern portion of the 
first floor of Cobb Hall seated several hundred. There, 
after the morning classes, at 12:30 o'clock, members 
of the University, faculties, trustees, and students, 
with some outside friends, assembled. 

With a fine perception of what alone could ade- 
quately express the emotions of many present. Presi- 
dent Harper opened the exercises by saying, ''We will 
sing the doxology, Traise God from Whom all bless- 
ings flow.'" He then led the assembly in the Lord's 
Prayer, and announced the hymn, "Nearer, My God, 
to Thee." Following the hymn, the president still 
leading, part of the ninety-fifth Psalm was read re- 
sponsively, "O come let us sing unto the Lord," and 
the hymn, "Oh, could I speak the matchless worth," 
was sung. Dean Judson then read parts of the first 
chapter of Genesis and of the first chapter of John, 
and verses 4-8 of the fourth chapter of Philippians. 
Prayer was ofl'ered by Professor Galusha Anderson, 
formerly president of the Old University. "Hail to 
the Lord's Anointed" was sung, a notice or two given, 
and the benediction was pronounced by Dean Hul- 
bert of the Divinity School. Thus simple were the 
exercises of that really great occasion. At the October 
opening of every year for the third of a century cov- 
ered by this volume substantially the same program, 
in all its simplicity, was repeated. It was known as 
the Commemorative Chapel Assembly. 



<^[ 104 ]4> 



Cobb Hall was not fully completed on the opening 
day and students passed under scaffolding to enter the 
classrooms. Workmen were still in the building and 
there was more or less noise. There were a few finish- 
ing touches to be put on the recitation hall and the 
dormitories, but the regular University work went 
right on. 

There were in the faculty thirteen head pro- 
fessors, twenty professors, sixteen associate, and 
twenty-seven assistant professors, fifteen instruc- 
tors, nine tutors, four assistants, seven readers, and 
nine docents, or 120 in all. In addition there were 
seven University Extension lecturers, engaged to give 
one or more courses of lectures. The total number of 
University students the first quarter was 594. In the 
Academy at Morgan Park there were ninety-nine boys 
and girls. 

Everything was new and everything was incom- 
plete. The site had received much attention from 
Daniel L. Shorey, one of the trustees, but in large 
part was still in its natural state. The western side 
was flat, but dry and covered with small oaks. The 
southeast quarter was like it. But these two sides were 
separated by low ground which was a morass in the 
spring, being lowest just east of where Haskell later 
stood, and here there was standing water for much of 
the year. There were a few board walks. There was 
no gymnasium for Mr. Stagg*s athletes, and no build- 



^[ 105 ]4> 



ing for what was already a great library. A gymnasi- 
um and library building, temporary in construction, 
was under way and became available at the end of the 
first quarter. Half a dozen other buildings, the Kent 
Chemical Laboratory, the Walker Museum, Foster, 
Kelly, Beecher, and Snell dormitories, were being 
constructed and the campus was covered with piles of 
earth, and with brick, stone, iron, lumber, every kind 
of building material, and swarming with workmen as 
well as with young men and women going to and from 
their recitations. The professors made their way about 
as well as they could, dodging teams, avoiding der- 
ricks, but rejoicing in the promise of increased facili- 
ties. They needed these badly. The scientific depart- 
ments had none whatever on the campus. A four- 
story brick building on the southwest corner of Fifty- 
fifth Street and University Avenue, divided into store- 
rooms below and apartments for flat-dwellers above, 
had been rented for them, and into these narrow quar- 
ters the biological departments and Physics, Chem- 
istry, and Geology were crowded, and here they tried 
to do their work through the whole of the first year. 
As one of the professors said some years later at the 
laying of the cornerstones of the four biological labo- 
ratories: "Our earlier days in the University were 
spent in the garrets and kitchens of a tenement house." 
But somehow the departments were housed, and the 
great enterprise was got under way. 



^[ io6 ]4> 



The opening released at once activities of every 
sort. The intellectual life of the University in all its 
departments began immediately to assume definite 
form. During the first quarter departmental clubs be- 
gan to be established, and before the end of the year 
there were fifteen or more. The Christian Union was 
organized. The professors organized the Philological 
Society. They were, also, socially greeted and wel- 
comed by the Men's Union of the Hyde Park Presby- 
terian Church, by the Baptist Social Union at the 
Grand Pacific Hotel, and by the trustees in Cobb Hall. 

The establishment of a college paper being one of 
President Harper's cherished plans, the newspaper 
men found negotiations easy and the University of 
Chicago Weekly greeted the students on the day of 
the opening. Two weeks later the first number of 
the University News appeared. In December, 1892, 
the Arena began an existence which was terminated 
with the second issue. The News survived until April 
19, 1893, but the Weekly held on triumphantly. 

The first meeting of the faculty on October i, 
1892, took up the matter of Greek-letter societies 
which were already organizing and, after much nego- 
tiation, the policy of sympathetic regulation was 
adopted. This arrangement continued and under it 
the fraternities flourished. 

The men students in the dormitories boarded in 
the Commons in the basement of the Divinity Halls, 



^[ 107 ]4> 



it not having been possible to find any other place. 
As no place could well have been worse, there was dis- 
satisfaction and the entire management was turned 
over to the students, which helped some, but not 
much. 

The year being one of beginnings, someone was 
continually starting something. In addition to the de- 
partmental clubs there were more than twenty socie- 
ties, clubs, associations, bands, choruses, and com- 
panies organized. The first month saw the birth of the 
Volunteer Mission Band, the Missionary Society, the 
Dilettante Club, a literary club of men and women 
instructors and students, the Glee Club, and the 
University Chorus. In November the University Col- 
lege Association, the Freshman Class, the Sophomore 
Class, the Students' Express Company, and the 
Young Men's and the Young Women's Christian As- 
sociations entered the field. In the same month the 
women graduate students, with a prophetic vision of 
the new opportunities and duties the still distant 
"votes for women" would open to them, organized the 
Parliamentary Law Club, "to familiarize its members 
with the proper mode of procedure in public meet- 
ings." And so the good work went on, graduates of 
colleges forming alumni clubs, lovers of games uniting 
in chess and checker clubs, those ambitious to speak 
well organizing the Oratorical Society, and the under- 
graduates ambitious to write well the Athenaeum 



<^[ io8 ]4> 



Literary Society. On the average, at least one new 
club or society was organized each week. 

There were other activities in bewildering variety. 
Mr. Stagg got his work under way without delay. 
Football practice began on the day the University 
opened. Mr. Stagg called his prospective warriors to- 
gether in Washington Park and began to teach them 
the game. On October 22, the first college game was 
played with Northwestern. It was a tie game. Neither 
team scored. Eleven days later the two teams met 
again and Northwestern won, 6-4. Five more college 
games were played. On November 15 the team won 
its first, and, for that year, its only college victory, 
winning from Illinois 10-4, but on Thanksgiving Day 
Illinois avenged itself by a victory, 28-12. Football 
was a new game to many in the West in 1892. It com- 
manded instant favor and at once awakened the inter- 
est and enthusiasm of the students and faculty and 
the public. But football could not be played without 
a college yell with which to cheer the team. A general 
invitation to the University for a "y^^^" brought out 
more than one, but the one that fairly earned the title 
of the Chicago yell was proposed at the very outset, 
and most happily, by Mr. Stagg himself: 



Chi-ca-go, Chi-ca-go, 
Chi-ca-go — Go ! 

Go Chi-ca, Go Chi-ca 
Go Chi-ca-Go. 



M 109 ]^ 



Like other college yells this was soon carried round the 
world. During this year Mr. Field gave the use of 
ground north of Fifty-seventh Street and east of Ellis 
Avenue for the University games, and it became fa- 
mous as Marshall Field. Football preceded tennis by a 
few days only. The tennis players started early and 
the first tournament was held in October. Although 
there were no courts on the campus the followers of 
the sport got out early in the spring, doing their play- 
ing where they could. Four courts were begun, how- 
ever, by the authorities and the Tennis Association 
was organized in June, 1893, to maintain and manage 
them. 

The temporary gymnasium was finished in Decem- 
ber, 1892, and eager candidates for basket-ball began 
to appear. The first team was organized in March and 
the games awakened great interest. 

In April the first track team got together, though 
there had already been track practice and contests on 
the new running-track of the gymnasium. 

It was to be expected, from Mr. Stagg's fame as 
a pitcher, that the boys would be eager for baseball 
under his leadership. The nine was organized in April 
and played fourteen games, ten of them with college 
teams. Of these ten Chicago won seven. In the dis- 
organized state of western college athletics, no objec- 
tion was made to the playing of Mr. Stagg. It was 
understood that the new University was just begin- 



^[ no ]4> 

ning its athletics. The conditions prevailing were de- 
scribed in an early song called "1893," by Steigmeyer, 

'97: 

Then Stagg was catcher, pitcher, coach, shortstop, and 
halfback, too; 

For in those days of "Auld lang syne" our good ath- 
letes were few. 

The final baseball game was played in June, during 
Convocation week, and was especially noteworthy be- 
cause it marked the dedication of the new Athletic 
Field, a victory of 8-3 over the University of Virginia, 
and the triumphant close of the first baseball season. 

In those days bicycle races were a recognized part 
of intercollegiate contests, and in January of the first 
year the University Cycling Club was organized and 
developed some champion cyclists. 

Although a little more than half the students were 
theological students and graduates, they were a very 
human, genial, social crowd. Receptions abounded 
from the very beginning — receptions in Cobb, in the 
Beatrice, an apartment house rented as a dormitory 
for women, and in the president's house. There were 
receptions for the college classes, from the Freshmen 
up, for the graduates, for the theologues, for the pro- 
fessors, for the wives of the professors and students. 
There were parties and sleigh rides. Every meeting 
of the forty clubs was a social event. The one great 
meeting of the University Union closed with a prome- 



<^[ III ]4> 



nade concert in Cobb Assembly Room when the 
whole University gathered. 

Most of the recitations being held in Cobb the stu- 
dents were thrown together in its halls several times 
daily, and these large assemblages of young people 
were naturally very social in their nature. An observ- 
er could not fail to be impressed with the perfectly 
natural, unconstrained way in which the young men 
and women mingled. They acted as though it was 
the most natural thing in the world that they were 
in the University together. All went about their 
daily business in a simple, straightforward manner, 
and the life on the campus was as natural as in any 
village community. 

Through the Christian Union, the two Christian 
associations, the missionary societies, and the churches 
of the city the religious life of the University found 
expression and was vigorous and active. There was no 
University chaplain the first year, and the pastors of 
the city were freely drawn upon for chapel addresses. 
Eminent preachers, not only from Chicago but from 
other parts of the country, spoke at the Sunday eve- 
ning services of the Christian Union. 

Music came in to help the social life and gratify 
artistic tastes. At least two series of "chamber con- 
certs" were given in Cobb. 

As the second quarter wore on, the first of the new 
dormitories, Snell Hall, approached completion. It 



^[ 112 ]#> 



was built for men, but the women of the University 
were given the right of way, and they left the Beatrice 
and moved into Snell on April 15, 1893. The very last 
number of the University News told the story of their 
flitting from the one to the other. 

The World's Fair was opened in the spring of 1893 
and the famous Ferris Wheel went round just over 
the fence from the new women's dormitories. The 
Fair and the Wheel brought moving remembrances 
to the author of "1893": 

Oh, there were more profs than students, but then we didn't care; 
They spent their days in research work, their evenings at the 

Fair. 
And Hfe upon the campus was one continual swing; 
We watched the Ferris Wheel go round, and didn't do a thing. 

The first Convocation was held in the Central 
Music Hall, which stood on the southeast corner of 
State and Randolph streets. The date was January 2, 
1893. It was a notable event because there, for the 
first time, the University as a whole, president, trus- 
tees, faculty, and students, met the people of Chicago 
and its friends and patrons in a great public function. 
Then was instituted the ceremonial, since become 
familiar, of the Convocation procession, students in 
academic cap and gown marching down the main aisle, 
followed by the professors also in cap and gown, their 
various bright-colored hoods lending animation to the 
scene, the trustees in cap and gown, with prominent 



^[ 113 ]4> 



visiting educators, the chaplain, the speaker, and the 
president closing the procession. 

The first Convocation address was delivered by 
Professor von Hoist to a noble audience filling the 
hall, on the subject, ''The Need of Universities in the 
United States." The president's statement followed. 
He contrasted the conditions existing twelve months 
before with those prevailing at the time he spoke, 
gave an account of the work of the quarter, closing 
with a statement of the urgent needs of the University. 
President Harper was always interesting, and never 
more interesting than in this first Convocation state- 
ment. 

At the third Convocation, the last one of the open- 
ing year. President Harper said that while, one year 
before, in a published official forecast, the number of 
students estimated for the Graduate School had been 
placed at 100, the number actually enrolled the first 
year had been 210, that the enrolment in the Divin- 
ity School had been 204, and that the total attendance 
in the colleges and higher departments had been 742. 
The president also announced that friends of the Uni- 
versity, quite independently of the University itself, 
had organized ''The Students' Fund Society," the 
purpose of which was to collect funds and distribute 
them, in the form of loans to students who gave clear 
indications of scholarly ability. This society con- 
tinued its beneficent work year after year. The work 



^[ 114 ]^ 

of the University Extension had been instituted with 
large success. Through many difficulties the Uni- 
versity Press had been got under way. 

Such were some of the educational, athletic, social, 
religious, and literary developments of the opening 
year. The year was so full, so crowded with new things 
that little justice can be done to it in these few pages. 

No one saw more clearly than President Harper 
that he had organized the University on a scale of 
expenditure not warranted by its resources. He had 
done this with his eyes open in the confident expecta- 
tion that the resources could and would be found. 
But no man was ever more anxious than he was and 
no man could work harder to find a way of deliver- 
ance. The story is too long to tell here, but two men 
finally opened that way. On Christmas Day, 1892, 
there was received from Mr. Rockefeller a third $ i ,000,- 
000 subscription, payable December 2, 1893. This 
was a great gift, but unfortunately it was not enough; 
it would not be available for a year; it was for endow- 
ment, and not even its income could be used for meet- 
ing obligations which were clamoring for payment. 

It was under these circumstances of distressing 
need that Martin A. Ryerson made a subscription of 
$100,000 on condition that $500,000 could be secured 
to "meet the exceptional expenses of organization and 
the pressing demands for general improvements and 
equipment.'' This proffer was made at the beginning 



^[ 115 ]4> 



of February, 1893. The president and secretary lost 
no time in beginning to seek subscriptions to fulfil Mr. 
Ryerson's offer. The panic of 1893 defeated them. 
Mr. Ryerson more than once gave them an extension 
of time. Mr. Rockefeller generously subscribed ^1505- 
000 toward current expenses. Mr. Ryerson advanced 
his |ioo,ooo to meet pressing obligations. The half- 
million was finally secured, but not till after the close 
of the first year, which thus ended with a long struggle 
with debts and deficits impending. 



X 

THE STRUGGLE WITH THE 
"DEFICIT 



THIS chapter might have any one of several 
names. It might be called "The University 
and Its Benefactors," or "The Expanding 
Plans of President Harper/' or "The Munificence of 
Mr. Rockefeller." All these things will emerge as the 
story develops. But the thing that is always in evi- 
dence in the record of the fifteen years that followed 
the opening of the University is the struggle with defi- 
cits. The beginnings of that fifteen-year struggle were 
touched upon in the preceding chapter. It was then 
told how Mr. Ryerson had offered 1 100,000 on condi- 
tion that the sum was increased to $500,000 by the 
contributions of others and how Mr. Rockefeller fol- 
lowed with a contribution of $150,000 for current ex- 
penses. This was the opening of that long struggle 
with a deficit that became a monster threatening to 
devour the institution. 

The summer of 1893 was one of the most trying 
in the history of the University. Nothing had been 
added to the Ryerson fund. The country was suffer- 
ing from one of the worst panics in its history and it 

<^[ 116 ]4> 



^[ 117 ]^ 



would have been lunacy to try to raise money. One 
man indeed could still make contributions, and on the 
last day of October of that year Mr. Rockefeller sent 
the board a new subscription of $500,000 conditioned 
on the raising of the Ryerson fund before July i, 1894. 
It was to be devoted to the general purposes of the 
institution and to providing for the deficit of 1894-95. 
The Ryerson half-million-dollar fund had now become 
the Ryerson million-dollar fund. But the financial de- 
pression continued, and it was not till May, 1894, that 
a new beginning could be made in soliciting subscrip- 
tions. It was finally found impossible to comply strict- 
ly with the conditions of Mr. Ryerson's subscription. 
The entire sum, indeed, required was raised and more, 
but it was necessary to admit some contributions for 
purposes not originally contemplated by Mr. Ryerson. 
I was associated with President Harper in the rais- 
ing of this subscription and can never forget its diffi- 
culties and discouragements. I recall one of the inci- 
dents that greatly depressed us at the time, but later 
gave us many a hearty laugh. We called on a well- 
known citizen, trustee of a well-known school, and 
began by saying, "We are calling on you because we 
know you are interested in education." We got no 
farther. Quick as lightning he burst out: "Not a par- 
ticle! Not a particle! Not a particle!" But almost 
invariably we were received, not only courteously, 
but with cordial friendliness. 



<^[ ii8 ]4> 



While the effort for the Ryerson million had been 
going on the obligations of the University had been 
increasing at an appalling rate, until they had ap- 
proached half a million dollars. It was the knowledge 
of this situation which had moved Mr. Rockefeller 
to make his proffer of half a million to encourage, and, 
if possible, insure the raising of the Ryerson fund. 

It was raised at last and the young institution res- 
cued, not from bankruptcy, for it was perfectly sol- 
vent, but from a load of obligations that threatened 
to cripple its activities, if it did not compel the tempo- 
rary suspension of its educational work. 

The authorities had been so disturbed and alarmed 
by the dangers that had threatened that the mistakes 
of the first and second years were never repeated. 
Temptations were not lacking. The number of stu- 
dents increased astonishingly. New departments, new 
schools, clamored for establishment. It was only by 
setting their faces like a flint against them that the 
authorities were able to resist the temptation to em- 
brace most alluring opportunities for branching out in 
various directions. And yet, with the best intentions 
in the world to pursue a conservative policy, the trus- 
tees, while guarding against the earlier peril, found, 
to their grief and dismay, the annual expenses mount- 
ing up by leaps and bounds. In 1894-95 these were, 
in round numbers ^544,000; in 1895-96, $637,000; in 
1896-97, ^^692,000. The income for the corresponding 



<#[ 119 ]^ 



years showed deficits of $53,000, $47,000, and $97,000, 
a total for the three years of nearly $200,000. This 
alarming result occurred notwithstanding the fact 
that Mr. Rockefeller made the following special con- 
tributions for current expenses for the express pur- 
pose of providing against deficits: in 1894-95, $I75)- 
000; in 1895-96, the same amount; and in 1896-97, 
$100,000, a total for the three years of $450,000. It 
was also in the middle of this period on October 30, 
1895, that Mr. Rockefeller made his great three- 
million-dollar subscription. This was an uncondi- 
tional pledge of $1,000,000 for endowment, which was 
paid two months later, and a further subscription, to 
quote the language of the pledge, of 

|2,ooo,ooo for endowment or otherwise as I may designate, pay- 
able in cash, or, at my option, in approved interest-bearing securi- 
ties at their fair market value, but only in amounts equal to the 
contribution of others, in cash or its equivalent, not hitherto 
promised, as the same shall be received by the University. This 
pledge shall be void as to any portion of the sum herein promised 
which shall not prove to be payable on the above terms on or 
before January i, 1900. 

Mr. Rockefeller had noted with apprehension the 
growth of the annual expenses and the increasing defi- 
cit. He made one effort to call a halt. In December, 
1894, he had subscribed $175,000 for the current ex- 
penses of 1895-96, but had provided that he was to be 
at Hberty to withhold further payments on the sub- 
scription in case it should be found that the expendi- 



<^[ 1 20 ]4> 



tures were exceeding the income. Ten months later 
he seems to have concluded that a better way would 
be to secure such an addition to the funds as would 
provide an income ample for the annual expenses and 
make deficits impossible. It would seem as though 
no device would be more certain to accomplish this 
result than this opening of the way to adding 15,000,- 
000 to the funds. It will be noted that after giving 
$1,000,000 outright, he proposed to duplicate every 
dollar that was contributed by others, for any pur- 
pose, during the ensuing four years, up to $2,000,000. 
These were no hard conditions. The proffer was most 
wisely and generously conceived to help the Univer- 
sity in every way. And in helping the University it 
was most effective. It called attention once more and 
with renewed emphasis to the fact that a really great 
University was developing in Chicago. It awakened 
an assured confidence in the minds of all in the future 
of the institution. It led persons of large wealth to 
feel that it would endure and was a safe place in 
which to make large investments for education. 

On December 14, 1895, only six weeks after the 
announcement of Mr. Rockefeller's subscriptions. 
Miss Helen Culver, having "concluded that the strong- 
est guaranties of permanent and efficient administra- 
tion would be assured if the property were entrusted 
to the University of Chicago," turned over to the 
trustees properties which she valued at $1,000,000. 



'^[ 121 ]4> 



They did not eventually produce that full amount 
and from time to time she added other contributions. 
The whole gift was "devoted to the increase and 
spread of knowledge within the field of the Biological 
Sciences/' 

In the early part of the year following these sub- 
scriptions and contributions, the Chicago Commer- 
cial Club turned over to the University the Chicago 
Manual Training School, its property and endow- 
ments, the whole aggregating in value $250,000. 

Year by year the four-million-dollar fund grew, 
but not fast enough to reach the total sum of two 
million dollars on the date fixed, January i, 1900. 
The time was therefore extended to April i. During 
these three months some notable gifts were received, 
carrying the total to almost two million dollars. Among 
the great contributions to the fund, in addition to 
those already mentioned, were the following: $206,000 
by Mrs. Charles Hitchcock, $135,000 by Marshall 
Field, $72,000 by Elizabeth G. Kelly, $60,000 by 
Charles L. Hutchinson, $50,000 by W. F. E. Gurley, 
$50,000 by John J. Mitchell, $40,000 by Martin A. 
Ryerson, $34,000 by Catherine W. Bruce, $30,000 by 
Mrs. B. E. Gallup, $27,000 by Mrs. Emmons Blaine, 
and $20,000 by Nancy S. Foster. There was a contri- 
bution of $50,000 from Leon Mandel for Mandel As- 
sembly Hall, which, a little later, but not soon enough 
to be counted in this fund, was increased by $35,000 



^[ 122 ]4> 



more. The very last days of the extension to April i 
came and a few thousand dollars were still lacking to 
make up the full two million the University must raise 
to secure the full two million Mr. Rockefeller had sub- 
scribed. On the last day but one President Harper 
received the following telegram: 

Wire me Saturday noon [March 31] how much you lack in 
fulfilling conditions. _, _ 

The information was dispatched and the following 
answer came back without delay: 
President W. R. Harpery University of Chicago: 

I have secured valid pledges from friends of University suffi- 
cient to cover whatever may be found on examination to be the 
actual shortage in the amount necessary to entitle the University 
to the full amount of Mr. Rockefeller's pledge of October 30, 1895, 
and you can therefore announce the success of the movement. 

F. T. Gates 

Thus was the greatest financial campaign of the 
first quarter-century brought to a triumphant issue. 
The University never inquired who the "friends" 
referred to in the foregoing telegram were. Mr. Rocke- 
feller considered their subscriptions "valid/' and as 
they were paid and duplicated by him the University 
was more than satisfied. As a result of the great sub- 
scription of October 30, 1895, ^5,000,000 came into 
the treasury of the University. It would naturally 
be supposed that with this immense addition to its 



<¥[ 123 ]^ 



resources the institution would now escape deficits. 
It would be supposed that most of this great sum 
must have been added to the endowment. As a mat- 
ter of fact almost the only part that went into the en- 
dowment was 11,500,000 from Mr. Rockefeller and a 
part of Miss Culver's contribution. The greater part 
of the two millions given by others went into addi- 
tions to the site, equipment, books, supplies, col- 
lections, and new buildings. Of Miss Culver's gift 
1325,000 was expended on the four Hull Biological 
Laboratories, and the fund was then withdrawn from 
use for about sixteen years and allowed to accumulate, 
the interest being annually added to the principal, so 
that when it was finally released in 19 14, the fund had 
so increased that it yielded in the neighborhood of 
^40,000 a year toward the annual expenses of the Bio- 
logical departments. Of the two millions contributed 
by Mr. Rockefeller in duplicating the gifts of others, 
some ^1,300,000 went to pay accumulated and cur- 
rent deficits in expenses for the six years succeeding 
the making of the subscription, and the remainder to 
pay for additions to the campus, to erect new build- 
ings — the Press Building and the Power Plant — to 
supplement the gifts of others for buildings, to pur- 
chase the law library, to provide for medical instruc- 
tion, and to provide the temporary structure for the 
School of Education. It was a great disappointment 
to the Founder and the trustees that so little could 



^[ 124 ]4> 



be saved from the $2,ooopoo gift for permanent en- 
dowment. 

Mr. Rockefeller fully understood all the factors in 
the situation, the genius of the president, which he 
did not wish to have discouraged, the conservatism 
of the trustees, the inevitableness of the University's 
expansion, and the difficulty of regulating it. His in- 
terest and confidence in the ultimate outcome were 
not diminished. They increased. He continued to care 
for the large deficits. In December, 1900, he made a 
new contribution of $1,000,000 for endowment and 
once more half a million for general purposes. In De- 
cember, 1 901, he added another million dollars to the 
endowment, and in December, 1902, still another mil- 
lion, making a total up to that date of more than 
$8,000,000 for endowment alone. Meantime since 
1897 Mr. Rockefeller had given the following sums to 
provide against current expense deficits: for the three 
years from 1897 to 1900, $200,000 each year; for 1900- 
190 1, $225,000; for 1 90 1 -2, $253,000; for 1902-3, 
$250,000; and for 1903-4, $261,000, a total of almost 
$1,600,000, for current expenses in seven years. And 
yet the deficit grew. Such was the expansion of the 
University's work that notwithstanding these un- 
paralleled gifts, and the contribution of several mil- 
lion dollars from other benefactors, the deficit for 
1 904-5, according to the budget proposed for that 
year, showed an increase of $60,000. This was, in a 



<^[ 125 ]4> 



conference between John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Dr. 
Gates, and a committee of the trustees, cut down a 
little, but only a little, and Mr. Rockefeller provided 
^300,000 to meet the prospective deficit. Then the 
conference took the following action to bring the an- 
nual deficits to a final end: 

It is the unanimous sense of this conference that until this 
deficit is wiped out by endowment or retrenchment, the Univer- 
sity must rigidly decline to consider the enlargement of any de- 
partments now existing, or the addition of any new departments 
of work which do at the time, or may in the future involve the 
University in additional expense, unless adequate funds are espe- 
cially provided therefor. This policy the gentlemen here assem- 
bled commit themselves to carry out to the full extent of their 
ability. 

In adopting this policy we are not taking a backward step, 
nor are we conceiving the University as remaining stationary. We 
conceive this step to be a step in advance, and the most important 
and the most exigent now before the University. If we shall dem- 
onstrate our ability to conduct the institution within its income and 
thus place it on an assured and permanent financial foundation, 
we shall have placed the institution in a position to invite the con- 
fidence of men of means, both in Chicago and in the East, and will 
be in a position to assure them, not only of the permanency of the 
institution, but that it can and will conduct its affairs annually 
without financial embarrassments and without financial crises, 
which may either threaten its usefulness or embarrass its friends. 

As Mr. Rockefeller had for the three years pre- 
ceding this conference added ^1,000,000 to the en- 
dowment as regularly as January came round, and as 
the needs were greater and more urgent than ever, 



<^[ 126 ]4> 



and as the responsible parties had concluded an 
agreement, binding on them all, henceforth "to con- 
duct the institution within its income/' it might have 
been supposed that a new and perhaps unusually large 
endowment gift would now be made. But no contribu- 
tion whatever for endowment was made. Mr. Rocke- 
feller subscribed ^300,000 to make the income for 
1 904-5 adequate, but that was all. 

December, 1904, came round and a committee 
again visited New York, with the budget for the year 
July I, 1905. Again there was disappointment as to 
any gift for endowment, but Mr. Rockefeller cheer- 
fully promised $245,000 for the current expenses. He 
was waiting to see whether the conference agreement 
of December, 1903, was being faithfully observed — 
whether the trustees were conducting the institution 
within its income and thus inviting "the confidence 
of men of means both in Chicago and in the East." 
There was disappointment, but perhaps this disap- 
pointment had its part in encouraging the trustees 
to establish that absolute control of the annual ex- 
penditures which characterized the financial manage- 
ment of the University from that day forward. 

When in December, 1905, the committee carried 
the budget for the next year to New York and with it 
presented the endowment needs, its members found 
themselves in a new atmosphere. In January they 
were able to report that Mr. Rockefeller not only 



<^[ 127 ]4> 



promised the funds needed to provide for the prospec- 
tive deficit, but $1,100,000 for endowment. And during 
the same year, on December 26, 1906, he emphasized 
his confidence by contributing $3,025,000, of which 
$2,700,000 was to be added to the permanent endow- 
ment. 

The day of deficits ended. The last deficit was pro- 
vided for in 1908. 

On December 30, 1907, a new contribution for en- 
dowment was made amounting to $1,400,000, and a 
year later still another gift in bonds of the market 
value of $862,125. These bonds were given not only 
for the permanent increase in endowment but also 
to provide for any possible deficit. But there was no 
deficit. Mr. Rockefeller, Jr., knew there would be 
none. In that joyful confidence he wrote Mr. Ryer- 
son, "It is with the utmost satisfaction that we see 
the deficit in the annual budget of the University thus 
permanently wiped out." For the rest of the period 
covered by this story, that is up to 1924, it was wiped 
out. Through the princely munificence of the Found- 
er the long and desperate struggle with the deficit had 
been brought to a triumphant conclusion. 



XI 

THE u:njversity gontij^es 

TO "BUILT) 



DURING the early years of the University its 
buildings multipHed so fast that they seemed 
to rise by magic. But no one of them all ever 
went up except under the spur of necessity and by 
hard days' work, and their number was always too 
small. More were always needed than could be pro- 
vided. Within less than six years after the opening 
on October i, 1892, the attendance of students in- 
creased more than threefold — from 742 the first year 
to 2,307 in 1897-98 — and continued to multiply. The 
president's house was built in 1895 and marked the 
close of the first building period. 

The first structure completed during the second era 
of building was the Haskell Oriental Museum. It was 
in connection with the raising of the Ryerson Fund 
that Mrs. Caroline E. Haskell, of Chicago, the widow 
of Frederick Haskell, gave j^ 100,000 for building the 
Museum. This gift with its accretions of interest fully 
paid for the building, which cost $103,01 7. The corner- 
stone was laid July i, 1895, and one year later, July 2, 
1896, the Museum was dedicated. The presence of 

<#[ 128 ]4> 




Hull Court 



<^[ 129 ]4> 



the Founder, Mr. Rockefeller, added to the interest 
of the day. The building was formally presented to 
the University on behalf of the donor by Professor 
George S. Goodspeed of the Department of Compara- 
tive Religion. In accepting it, President Harper said 
this of the circumstances under which the gift was 
secured : 

.... I remember distinctly a warm day, about the first of 
June, which the secretary of the board of trustees and myself 
had spent in the city from early morning until late in the after- 
noon without meeting success of any kind As we were re- 
turning home, it was suggested that perhaps our friend, Mrs. 
Caroline E. Haskell, who had before expressed great interest in 
the cause, might be willing to assist in the work we were trying to 
accomplish. It was found that she had been considering very seri- 
ously the question of erecting a building upon the grounds of the 
University in memory of her husband, and in a few minutes she 
expressed her willingness to furnish the money for the erection 
of such a building. It was this gift that made certain the securing 
of the million dollars [involved in the raising of the Ryerson 
Fund]. 

After the lapse of thirty years I recall vividly that 
day and that incident. Mrs. Haskell was living at the 
Victoria Hotel then standing on the northwest corner 
of Michigan Avenue and Van Buren Street. As we 
were passing the hotel Dr. Harper seemed half-in- 
clined to stop and call on her. Only one month before 
she had given us |20,ooo to endow the Haskell Lec- 
tureship and it was hoping against hope to expect 
more from her at that time. But as the president 



^[ 130 ]4> 



seemed not indisposed to call I urged him to do so, 
express in person his gratitude for what she had so 
recently done, and tell her something of the difficulty 
we were having in securing the help we needed. He 
made the call alone, as I did not then know Mrs. 
Haskell, and I waited for him in the park across the 
street. We were not asking for buildings and Dr. 
Harper did not suggest a building to her. It was she 
who suggested it to him. He was not gone more than 
twenty minutes before he returned radiant and enthu- 
siastic. The matter of a building as a memorial of her 
husband had been in her mind and she welcomed the 
call as an opportunity to talk with him about it and 
in a quarter of an hour her half-formed purpose crys- 
tallized into a contribution for the Haskell Oriental 
Museum. At the dedication of the building an ad- 
dress was delivered by Rabbi Emil G. Hirsch, who 
spoke with "eloquence, learning, and deep convic- 
tion'' on the importance of oriental, and especially 
of Semitic, studies for the understanding of man's re- 
ligious capacity and destiny. The prayer of dedication 
was made by Rev. Dr. W. H. P. Faunce, of New York 
City. 

For nearly thirty years this building was used as 
the lecture hall of the Divinity School as well as for 
Museum purposes. In it also was the office of Presi- 
dent Harper during the last ten years of his life, and 
of President Judson from 1906 to 191 2. 



M 131 ]^ 



The early years of the history of the University 
formed a period of extraordinary interest to those who 
had charge of its affairs. One manifestation of en- 
Hghtened Hberahty was followed by another until they 
were well-nigh bewildered by these exhibitions of the 
public favor. Something new, unexpected, surprising, 
was almost continually coming up. Nothing more 
gratifying occurred during those early years than the 
great offering, made by Miss Helen Culver, of Chicago, 
in 1895, of properties which she estimated at $1,000,- 
000, ''the whole gift to be devoted to the increase and 
spread of knowledge within the field of the Biological 
Sciences." Miss Culver said: 

Among the motives prompting this gift is the desire to carry 
out the ideas and to honor the memory of Mr. Charles J. Hull, 
who was for a considerable time a member of the Board of Trus- 
tees of the Old University of Chicago. I think it appropriate 
therefore to add the condition, that, wherever it is suitable, the 
name of Mr. Hull shall be used in designation of the buildings 
erected, and of endowments set apart in accordance with the 
terms of this gift. 

Only a year before this great donation was re- 
ceived, what was originally known as the School of 
Biology had been divided into the following inde- 
pendent departments : Zoology, Anatomy, Neurology, 
Physiology, Botany, and Paleontology. The need 
of buildings for these important departments was 
distressing. It had been recognized from the begin- 



M 13^ ]^ 



ning. It was never absent from President Harper's 
mind and every effort had been made to supply the 
need. It was therefore like a sudden flood of light 
breaking through the clouds of a dark day when un- 
solicited Miss Culver offered J 1,000,000 for buildings 
and endowments for the Biological departments. A 
special building, committee was at once set to work 
and plans were quickly prepared for the Hull Bio- 
logical Laboratories. 

The laboratories, as finally built, were four in 
number, the Zoological, the Anatomical, the Physio- 
logical, the Botanical, and were located at the north 
end of the original site of four blocks, midway be- 
tween University and Ellis avenues. They formed a 
complete quadrangle. The four laboratories stood on 
the four corners. Zoology on the northeast. Anatomy 
on the northwest. Physiology on the southwest, and 
Botany on the southeast. A cloister, constructed of 
the same material as the laboratories and perfectly 
lighted by many windows, connected Botany with 
Zoology and Physiology with Anatomy. A covered 
gateway leading into the quadrangle separated, and 
at the same time connected. Zoology and Anatomy. 
The four laboratories were thus, in effect, under a 
single roof. On the south connecting Botany and Phys- 
iology was a high iron fence with an ornamental gate- 
way, opposite the imposing north entrance, opening 
into the general University grounds. The space thus 



M 133 ]^ 



inclosed by the fence, the laboratories and the clois- 
ters received the name of Hull Court, as the group of 
buildings was denominated the Hull Biological Labo- 
ratories. Were it not for the donor's desire to have the 
name of Mr. Hull emphasized, the quadrangle itself 
would long since have been formally designated the 
Helen Culver Quadrangle and it will be strange if it 
is not known by this name to posterity. 

The cornerstones of the four laboratories were 
laid July 3, 1896, in connection with the University's 
Quinquennial Celebration. The laboratories were 
finished in the spring of 1897, and dedicated on July 2, 
in connection with the Nineteenth Convocation. A 
dedicatory address was dehvered in Hull Court by 
Professor William H. Welch, of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, on "Biology and Medicine." 

In presenting the buildings to the University Miss 
Culver made a most impressive address, to which 
President Harper responded with great feeling. In 
addition to Anatomy, Physiology, Zoology, and Bot- 
any, the Departments of Pathology and Bacteriology 
found their homes in the Hull Laboratories, and the 
work of the medical students was here conducted. 
It was particularly gratifying to the authorities that 
these laboratories were built for the sum appropri- 
ated — $325,000. The impressive gateway was the gift 
of the architect Henry Ives Cobb. 

A week after the University opened its doors to 



^[ 134 ]^ 



students on October i, 1892, the secretary made the 
following statement: 

The first week has been signalized by a new benefaction, so 
splendid that it will be forever memorable in the annals of the 
University. Charles T. Yerkes has arranged to build one of the 
completest astronomical observatories in the world. When the 
Old University secured its telescope with an objective eighteen 
and one-half inches in diameter, it possessed the largest instru- 
ment then in existence. Since that time telescopes have been 
made having objectives of twenty, twenty-three, twenty-four, 
twenty-five, twenty-six, twenty-seven, twenty-eight, thirty, and 
thirty-six inches. There seeming, just at this time, to be an oppor- 
tunity to secure a telescope having an objective of forty inches. 
President Harper laid the matter before Mr. Yerkes. With that 
quick and generous liberality which has distinguished the patrons 
of the University, Mr. Yerkes at once took steps to enable the 
University to secure this great prize. 

It was expected, at the time, that the Observatory- 
would be built as soon as the architect, Mr. Cobb, 
could prepare the plans. It soon developed, however, 
that the work could not be hastened. At the outset it 
was supposed the Observatory would be located in 
Chicago. But it soon appeared that there were in- 
superable objections to a city location, the chief one 
being the smoke of Chicago which so often obscured 
the sky. Inquiries were therefore begun as to the best 
location outside the city. An astonishing interest was 
immediately manifested in many communities to se- 
cure the location of the Observatory in their neighbor- 
hood. Many offers of land and money were made to 



^[ 135 ]^ 



obtain the prize. The question of the location having 
been referred to Mr. Ryerson and President Harper, 
they carefully considered the proffers made and the 
advantages and disadvantages of the various loca- 
tions suggested. After conferring with eight of the 
leading astronomers of the country and considering 
the advantages of the twenty-six locations proposed, 
the committee recommended and the board selected 
Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, as the site of the Observa- 
tory. John Johnston, Jr., gave some fifty-five acres 
of land near WiUiams Bay, a site beautiful for situa- 
tion, overlooking, from a lofty elevation, almost the 
entire area of the lake. 

The great object glass of the telescope was made 
by Alvan G. Clark & Sons, of Boston. The telescope 
was made by Warner & Swasey, of Cleveland, and was 
exhibited in the World's Fair in Chicago in 1893 in 
the Manufactures Building. It was not until after 
long delay that the plans were completed and the 
building of the Observatory was begun in the spring 
of 1895. It was this delay that brought the Observa- 
tory into the second era of building. Meantime, Presi- 
dent Harper had received from William E. Hale, of 
Chicago, the father of Professor George E. Hale, the 
following letter: 

Chicago, June 30, 1894 
Dear Sir: 

It gives me pleasure to offer to give to the University of Chi- 
cago the astronomical, physical, photographic, and mechanical 



^[ 136 ]4> 



equipment of the Kenwood Observatory, to be taken by you 
where it is now located on Forty-sixth Street, at such time as your 
Observatory buildings are prepared to receive it. 

The equipment consists of a twelve-inch equatorial telescope, 
with visual lens, and twelve-inch lens for photographic work, in- 
cluding its pier and dome. Also a spectroheliograph and other at- 
tachments for solar and stellar observations and photography. 
Also other physical, electrical, photographic, and astronomical 
apparatus and fixtures, together with a machine shop for fine 
mechanical work, all of which I value at thirty thousand dollars. 

You are at liberty to use the above apparatus, and the build- 
ing in which it stands, until such time as your new Observatory 

is ready to receive it. ^ , 

^ 1 ours very truly, 

■ W.E.Hale 

This gift was regarded as a very valuable addition to 
the facilities and equipment of the plant. The new 
Observatory was finished in 1897, and formally de- 
livered by Mr. Yerkes to the University, through Mr. 
Ryerson, the president of the board of trustees, and 
dedicated on October 21 of that year. Several hundred 
guests witnessed the ceremonies of dedication. 

In addition to the contribution of Mr. Hale, the 
Observatory and its equipment cost 1325,000. Miss 
Catherine Bruce, of New York, enriched it with a ten- 
inch photographic telescope with building and dome. 
Mr. Yerkes crowned his benefactions for it with a 
bequest for its maintenance. 

In 1897-98 the attendance of women students had 
increased from less than two hundred in 1893 to more 



^[ 137 ]4> 



than a thousand. There had come to be a most in- 
sistent call for additional residence halls to receive 
these growing numbers. It was under these circum- 
stances that Mrs. Elizabeth G. Kelly, who had al- 
ready given 150,000 for a women's hall, once more 
brought the needed help. On May 17, 1898, Mrs. 
Kelly sent to the trustees a letter in which she said: 

President Harper and Mr. Goodspeed having called my atten- 
tion to the great desire of the University to complete the erection 
of the hall for women between Kelly and Beecher halls, I hereby 
agree to turn over to the University, for this purpose, securities 
amounting to ^50,000, on the following conditions, viz., The build- 
ing shall be called Green Hall, in memory of my parents. The 
University shall pay me five per cent per annum on the said sum 
of 350,000, viz., 32,500 annually during my hfe. The University 
shall place in the hall a memorial tablet bearing the names of my 
father and mother. At my decease the fund thus contributed is 
to be the property of the University of Chicago. 

Mrs. Kelly's reference to "the hall for women" re- 
lates to a movement among the women of the city, 
inaugurated during the raising of the million dollars 
in ninety days by the Chicago Woman's Club and 
participated in by the Fortnightly to raise a fund 
for a building for women students from a consider- 
able number of subscribers. A number of women 
contributed to this fund, Mrs. Martin Ryerson, Mr. 
Ryerson's mother, giving ^10,000, and the founda- 
tions of the building were put in between Beecher 
and Kelly when those halls were built. It was to 



^[ I3B ]^ 



complete this building, begun six years earlier, that 
Mrs. Kelly's second contribution was made. The 
plans for the three halls required that the central 
section, which was the one to be finished, should 
be five stories in height, Beecher and Kelly each 
being four. It also exceeded them in length. Its 
total cost, including the foundations, laid six years 
earlier, was $72,000, and Mrs. Kelly in the end very 
generously provided this entire sum. Green Hall pro- 
vided a home for sixty-seven women. It was opened 
to students on January i, 1899. 

The assumption by Mrs. Kelly of the entire cost 
of Green Hall turned back into the treasury the fund 
contributed for the building for women students by 
women of Chicago, and this fund having been wisely 
invested and the income added to the principal, it 
had increased in 1924 to a little more than $50,000. 
A number of the donors to the fund had expressed the 
hope that the women of the city would make such 
additional contributions as would erect a worthy build- 
ing as a memorial to Mrs. Kate Newell Doggett, one of 
the most public-spirited and highly esteemed women 
of early Chicago. The fund is a challenge to women 
to complete an undertaking which women have begun. 

This second period of building had covered some- 
thing more than three and one-half years. It added to 
the University's material equipment seven buildings. 
With their furniture, and fully equipped for use, they 



M 139 ]^ 



represented an expenditure of about $900,000. They 
were given to the University by its Chicago friends. 
The money for them had been secured almost without 
effort. Much of it had been proffered without solicita- 
tion, and the rest had been given quite as freely. When 
this second era of building ended, less than eight years 
had passed since the breaking of ground for Cobb 
Hall in November, 1891. The twenty buildings erect- 
ed during these seven years had cost, with their equip- 
ment, more than $2,200,000, all except $100,000 con- 
tributed by the friends of the University in Chicago. 
These seven years included both the first and second 
building eras of the University. They witnessed an 
astonishing outpouring of money for the cause of edu- 
cation. They showed in an extraordinary manner the 
appeal the new University had made to the imagina- 
tion, the idealism, and the spirit of altruism of Chi- 
cago. During these years the benevolence of its people 
was awakened and developed as never before. Every 
institution of religion, education, and charity profited 
by that awakening, and all subsequently found a re- 
sponse to their appeals before unknown. The Uni- 
versity helped Chicago to find itself as a city of ideal- 
ism and benevolence, fired it with the enthusiasm of 
giving, and opened wider the fountain of wealth flow- 
ing in increasing volume to bless the city and the 
world. 



XII 

3^Tr STEPS IN EXTANSIO:Ni, 



IN TELLING the story of the early years of the 
University the narrator is constantly coming up- 
on new things, particularly upon new steps in 
enlargement. It will be recalled that eight of these, 
all of them important, had been taken before the work 
of instruction began. In the present chapter eight 
further steps in advance will be recounted. 

When the University opened, George E. Hale, a 
young astronomer, was pursuing his scientific work 
in an observatory his father, William E. Hale, had 
built and equipped for him in Chicago. President 
Harper soon found this young astronomical enthusi- 
ast, recognized his genius, and secured him as asso- 
ciate professor of Astrophysics, without salary, in the 
first faculty. Mr. Hale was also director of the Ob- 
servatory, his own Observatory, and the total expense 
of the Department of Astronomy with a docent under 
Mr. Hale was about 1^ 1,500 a year. The contributions 
of Mr. Yerkes, providing the University with the 
great telescope and the Observatory at Lake Geneva, 
Wisconsin, changed all this. Although the Observa- 

M 140 W 




Harper Library and the 
Law Building 



M 141 ]^ 



tory was not ready for use till 1897, five years later, 
the increase in the staff of the department began with- 
out delay, and when the Observatory opened the staff 
consisted of the director, Mr. Hale, three other pro- 
fessors, one associate professor, two instructors, one 
associate, and one assistant. There was also an 
optician, making the staff ten in all. The Astro- 
physical Journal was started. The maintenance of the 
Observatory required an engineer and other helpers. 
Distinguished astronomers were engaged. Houses 
were built at Lake Geneva for the astronomers. The 
work of the Observatory increased, and its services to 
the science of astronomy were conspicuous. The Uni- 
versity could not withhold the necessary facih ties. The 
inevitable result was that expenditures increased from 
year to year, till they approximated $65,000 annually. 
The great contribution of Mr. Yerkes occasioned an 
expansion of its work requiring the income of an en- 
dowment of about $1,400,000 to carry it on. This was 
the first of the further steps in expansion. 

The second step was the inauguration of the policy 
of publishingdepartmentaljournals. PresidentHarper 
held very strong views as to the desirability of this 
step. He regarded the establishment of such journals 
as an essential feature of a true University. His ideal 
of a university professor was that he should be much 
more than a teacher of students. He made it under- 
stood that this ideal professor would also be an in- 



^[ 142 ]^ 



vestigator and a producer. Instruction, research, pro- 
duction, all these were essential. 

With these views it is not to be wondered at that 
he strongly urged from the beginning the starting of 
departmental journals. His recommendations did not 
meet with as cordial a response from the trustees as 
almost always greeted his proposals. Such was the 
confidence of the trustees in him, that, as a rule, what 
he proposed they approved. Such was their affection 
for him that it hurt them to refuse any request he 
made. When, however, it came to entering into the 
business of publishing journals they hesitated. But 
there was something about the president's faith that 
was peculiarly contagious, and when he urged the 
great educational value of the undertaking opposition 
disappeared. The first of these publications was the 
Journal oj Folitical Economy followed almost immedi- 
ately by the Journal oJ Geology ^ both appearing in the 
first half of the first year. Before the end of the first 
year the Biblical Worlds the American Journal of 
Semitic Languages and Literatures (previously called 
Hebraica)^ and the University Extension World fur- 
nished new channels for publication. In 1895 came 
the Astrophysical Journal and the American Journal 
of Sociology. In 1896 the Botanical Gazette and the 
School Review appeared and the University Record suc- 
ceeded the Quarterly Calendar. At the beginning of 
1897 the American Journal of Theology was started, 



^[ 143 ]^ 



later combining with the Biblical World to form the 
Journal of Religion, After 1897 no new journals were 
added to the list for four years. Then a new period of 
activity began. The Chicago Institute, which became 
the School of Education of the University of Chicago 
in 1 901, brought with it a journal which after two 
changes of name became the Elementary School Jour- 
nal. In 1903 Modern Philology appeared, in 1906, 
Classical Philology y and in 1923, the International 
Journal of Ethics. 

This work of publication was properly considered 
by the trustees as a part of the University's educa- 
tional service. It was never in their minds a business 
enterprise. 

The same thing may be said of the publishing work 
of the University in general. During the first third of 
a century of its history the University Press did a 
large work in the publication of books. The primary 
aim was to issue books that had an essentially educa- 
tional value. It was understood that in some cases 
these books, whose intrinsic value made their publi- 
cation desirable, would not yield a profit. If they were 
of educational and scientific value, the fact that they 
might not pay the expense of publishing did not shut 
them out from favorable consideration. It is not to 
be understood that the books published by the Uni- 
versity Press were never financially profitable. Very 
many were profitable ventures. But they were not 



<#[ 144 1^ 



always so and were not always expected to be. They 
were books worth printing and were a part of the edu- 
cational service of the University to the world. The 
books and pamphlets published during the first third 
of a century numbered about i^ooo, of which 820 were 
still in print, living books at the end of that period. 

The University Bookstore was a part of the work 
of the Press and a very useful part of it. It grew into 
a large store, providing a multitude of things needed 
by students. 

One kind of expansion that was more or less con- 
tinuous was the increase in the number of depart- 
ments and lectureships. In 1900 Practical Sociology 
was developing in the Divinity School. In 1903 and 
1904 Psychology was erected into a department, the 
Department of Household Administration was organ- 
ized, and about the same time the Department of 
Geography. In 1904 Mrs. Caroline E. Haskell en- 
dowed with |2o,ooo each, two lectureships, the Haskell 
and the Barrows, and in 191 5 Mr. and Mrs. Jesse L. 
Rosenberger provided the Nathaniel Colver Lecture- 
ship and Publication Fund. 

The great contributions of Miss Culver opened the 
way for new steps in advance. These led to the build- 
ing of the biological laboratories, the establishment of 
the Department of Paleontology, and the increase of 
the number of instructors in the Biological depart- 
ments between 1895 and 1901 from sixteen to thirty- 



^[ 145 ]^ 



four. The funds provided had not, indeed, endowed 
all these departments. The expansion had far ex- 
ceeded the provision for it. But in the end the munifi- 
cence of Mr. Rockefeller made this great step only a 
natural part of an orderly and triumphant progress. 

Another interesting story which one wishes he had 
space to tell as it ought to be told is that of University 
College. It was begun in a small way in 1898, and 
Mrs. Emmons Blaine, who was the daughter of the 
elder Cyrus H. McCormick, contributed ^5,000 a 
year for seven or eight years to sustain it. It was 
organized as the University of Chicago College for 
Teachers, and conducted its classes in the business 
center. The University Extension class work in the 
city soon became a part of it and after 1900 it was 
known as University College. It was a real college and 
offered all who desired a college education and could 
not go to the University quadrangles for it oppor- 
tunity to secure it in afternoon, evening, and Satur- 
day classes. The instructors gave in it the same 
courses they taught in the University. The courses 
were the same in amount and quality of work as other 
University courses and were fully credited toward 
University degrees. It met a pronounced need and 
grew from year to year. In 191 5-1 6 the attendance 
exceeded 1,400 eager students, and in 1923-24 it 
reached 3,143. 

We come now to a very great step in expansion — 



^[ 146 ]4> 



the establishment of the School of Education, one of 
the most important ever taken by the University. In 
1 901 the Chicago Institute, a training school for teach- 
ers established by Mrs. Emmons Blaine in the North 
Division of Chicago, became the School of Education 
of the University of Chicago. Through the enlight- 
ened liberality of Mrs. Blaine the School and about 
$1,000,000 in property and funds were committed 
to the University. Eventually the University Ele- 
mentary Schools, the South Side Academy, and the 
Chicago Manual Training School, which, founded and 
sustained for fourteen years by the Commercial Club, 
had been placed in the hands of the University by its 
trustees; these three primary and secondary schools 
together with the Chicago Institute made up the 
School of Education. Mrs. J. Y. Scammon made a 
contribution of land, and the buildings of the School, 
the Emmons Blaine and Belfield halls, were erected 
on the Scammon homestead on the Midway Plaisance 
in 1904. There was gathered within the School of Ed- 
ucation a complete school system — a kindergarten, an 
elementary school, a high school, a college, and a 
graduate department. The high school, the elemen- 
tary school, and the kindergarten were the labora- 
tories of the College of Education. The budget of the 
School the first year after the combination was $107,- 
000. In 1923-24 its attendance of students had so in- 
creased as to number in the College 1,675, ^^^ ^^^ 



^[ 147 ]^ 



budget of expenditures was $4-3'^, SJS- These figures 
will indicate how great a step in expansion was in- 
volved in its establishment. 

Perhaps nothing was nearer President Harper's 
heart than the desire to develop a great Medical 
School in connection with the University. He was 
never more urgent in his Convocation statements than 
when pleading for an endowment for medical educa- 
tion as "the greatest piece of work which still remains 
to be done for the cause of education in the city of 
Chicago." He was so anxious to make a beginning in 
medical education that in 1898 an affiliation was en- 
tered into with Rush Medical College, and when in 
April, 1 901, the trustees of Rush requested the Uni- 
versity to receive the two lower classes of Rush as 
students of the University, doing the work of these 
two years in its laboratories, the University trustees 
agreed to take this important step if $50,000 could be 
secured "with which to provide for initial expenses 
necessarily connected with such work." For this sum, 
application was made to Mr. Rockefeller, who con- 
sented that the sum required should be taken from his 
1895 subscription. This arrangement took effect Oc- 
tober I, 1 90 1, and was carried on continuously from 
that time. « 

The expenditures of the first year in the new de- 
partment, in addition to the $50,000 for the initial 
equipment, amounted to $41,000, but soon increased 



^[ 148 ]4> 



to above $50,000 a year. This was the limit of expan- 
sion in Medicine during the life of President Harper, 
but it only began the story. The continuation of the 
story, so far as that developed in the first third of 
a century, will find its place on a later page. It will 
there appear that these modest beginnings in Medi- 
cine prepared the way for the greatest of all the Uni- 
versity's steps in expansion. The advance steps in 
this second period, as in the first, crowded one upon 
the other. The Medical Courses had hardly been be- 
gun before the final steps were being taken for the es- 
tablishment of the Law School. Of course that School 
had been a part of the president's original plan. When 
he had waited for it ten years he felt that he had 
waited a very long time indeed. On the recommenda- 
tion of the president, the trustees, January 21, 1902, 
voted : 

1 . That Mr. Rockefeller be requested to consider the advisa- 
bility of giving to the University the sum of fifty thousand dol- 
lars for the purchase of a law library: and if he shall consent, 
that — 

2. The president be authorized to proceed to organize the Uni- 
versity School of Law, to be open for instruction October i, 1902. 

Mr. Rockefeller readily agreed that ^50,000 of 
his two-milHon-dollar gift of October 30, 1895, should 
be used for "the purchase of a law library and the 
organization of a University School of Law." A high 
standard of admission was set, to quote President 



<^[ 149 ]4> 



Harper, "three years in advance of those of any other 
school west of New York" at that time. The library 
was bought, professors secured, and the School opened 
October i, 1902, just ten years after the opening of 
the University. The number of students the first 
year was seventy-eight. The attendance increased 
regularly. A building was erected and was occupied 
at the opening of the Spring Quarter, 1904. I am not 
writing a history of the Law School, but merely call- 
ing attention to it as one of the University's steps in 
expansion. It has had a most successful and useful 
history. Able men have filled its professorships. Its 
graduates have made an honorable record. The School 
has had a part in raising the standards of admission 
and thus improving the quality of law-school gradu- 
ates. It is justly proud of the number of its alumni 
who have become professors in other schools of law. 
Its attendance of students rose to 466 in 1924 and its 
budget of expenses to about $80,000. 

I have spoken of the great importance attached to 
the early enlargement of the original campus from 
three blocks to four. In subsequent years, as the 
need arose, additional lots were added. In 1898 Mr. 
Rockefeller and Mr. Field united in adding to the site 
the two blocks north of the central quadrangles, to 
be used for athletic purposes, later officially named 
Stagg Field in honor of A. Alonzo Stagg, for so many 
years the beloved director of Athletics. 



<^[ 150 ]#> 



Meantime Mr. Rockefeller, looking far into the fu- 
ture, and anticipating the continued development of 
the institution he had founded, entered upon a series 
of transactions fairly bewildering in their promise of 
future University development. He instructed Major 
H. A. Rust, the University business manager, to be- 
gin to purchase for him lands in any and all the blocks 
fronting south on the Midway Plaisance for a distance 
of about three-quarters of a mile, from Washington 
Park on the west to Dorchester Avenue on the east. 
When in 1903 Wallace Heckman became business 
manager, the commission to continue these purchases 
of land was transferred to him and was so industri- 
ously executed by him that in the end the University 
found itself in possession, lacking perhaps 400 feet 
front on side streets, of the entire ten blocks from 
Washington Park to Dorchester Avenue, including 
the whole of the Midway front. There were many 
dwelling and apartment houses on these blocks, but 
all were purchased and deeded to the University. 
The total cost to Mr. Rockefeller of these purchases 
north of the Midway was ? 1,647,000. 

But this was not all. Mr. Rockefeller seems to 
have determined, while he was about it, so to en- 
large the University grounds as to make provision for 
any possible future expansion. Mr. Heckman, there- 
fore, was encouraged to transfer his purchasing activi- 
ties to the blocks fronting on the Midway Plaisance 



<¥[ 151 ]4> 



along its southern boundary. He pushed the good 
work so successfully that in a few years he had secured 
the Midway front on the south for the entire dis- 
tance covered by the holdings on the north side, 
about three-quarters of a mile. When these lands 
south of the Plaisance were all turned over to the 
University, it was found that these extraordinary 
purchases north and south of the Midway Plaisance 
had, together, cost Mr. Rockefeller $3,229,775. This 
was a step in expansion taken by the Founder himself 
on his own initiative. Although there was among the 
trustees more or less knowledge of what he was hav- 
ing done, no one had any positive assurance that the 
purchased blocks would be given to the University. 
They were purchased for Mr. Rockefeller. They be- 
longed to him to do with as he pleased. The Univer- 
sity did not ask him for them. The purchases and the 
successive gifts were his own acts. When these pur- 
chases were added to the University grounds the new 
Chicago campus was found to comprise a hundred 
acres, divided in the center by the park of the Midway 
Plaisance. 

This concludes the story of the various steps in 
expansion taken during the first third of a century of 
the history of the University, excepting only the pro- 
gressive development of the great Medical School 
plans. In an advance movement unparalleled in edu- 
cational annals, they developed the proposed college 



<^[ 152 ]4> 



of 1890 into the University of 1924. Almost every 
year witnessed a new and long step in advance in that 
well-nigh miraculous development which in this brief 
period placed the University in the front rank of the 
world's institutions of learning. 



XIII 

SOME I:A(JERESTIJ^ "BUILXflNgS 



THE year 1901 will always be remembered in 
the annals of the University as the year of the 
Decennial Celebration. Nothing in the his- 
tory of that year stands out more prominently than 
the fact that it introduced another great era of build- 
ing. 

Ellis Hall, standing on the southwest corner of 
Ellis Avenue and Fifty-eighth Street, a temporary 
brick, one-story structure with a flat roof, covering 
20,000 square feet and having thirty large rooms, was 
the first building completed. It was built primarily 
for the School of Education. It was needed in a hurry. 
The contract was let August 9, 1901, and on October i 
the completed building was occupied by the new 
School. It cost $25,000 and did not add to the archi- 
tectural beauty of the quadrangles, but for a quarter 
of a century it served many useful purposes. 

The next two buildings were provided by the 
bounty of Mr. Rockefeller. Finding that the Uni- 
versity, which had adapted various makeshifts to 
supply its buildings with heat, was in the most dis- 

M 153 W 



^[ 154 ]^ 



tressing need of a heat, light, and power plant, he 
sent his own engineer to Chicago and through him, at 
a cost of $445,000, built the great plant running north 
of Fifty-eighth Street on the west side of the alley be- 
tween Ellis and Ingleside avenues. When finally com- 
pleted, it covered an area of 17,000 square feet, the 
great smokestack rising 175 feet into the air. 

For many years the University Press was housed 
in the temporary gymnasium and library building. 
Its quarters were dark, cramped, and wholly inade- 
quate. If they had been called a disgrace to the Uni- 
versity there would have been no adequate answer. 
As the University grew and the demands on the Press 
increased these quarters became more and more im- 
possible. Once more, therefore, Mr. Rockefeller came 
to the relief of the sorely pressed trustees, and pro- 
vided the funds for what was known as the University 
Press Building. It was located on the northwest cor- 
ner of Ellis Avenue and Fifty-eighth Street. As Mr. 
Rockefeller was to be at the University during the 
Decennial Celebration, the foundations were pre- 
pared for the laying of the cornerstone at that time. 
The ceremony took place on June 15 in the presence 
of a large attendance of spectators. The building was 
finished and occupied October i, 1902. It was built 
of red pressed brick, four stories in height, with a 
front on Ellis Avenue of 140 feet, and it cost 1105,852. 
It furnished classrooms for the Law School for two 




The Tower Group 



M 155 ]^ 



years, offices for the auditor, registrar, secretary of 
the board, and superintendent of Buildings and 
Grounds for many years, and for ten years housed the 
general Hbrary. On the first floor the Press conducted 
the bookstore until that growing concern found larger 
quarters in EUis Hall and was replaced by the In- 
formation Office and the Faculty Exchange, or post- 
office. 

In 1900 Mrs. Charles Hitchcock gave the Univer- 
sity, on an annuity basis, $200,000, of which $150,000 
was designated for the erection of a dormitory for 
young men as a memorial of her husband, who had 
been a prominent Chicago lawyer. He had been the 
president of the convention of 1869-70 which framed 
the present state constitution of Illinois. The plans for 
the Charles Hitchcock Hall were prepared by Archi- 
tect D. H. Perkins. The cornerstone was laid by 
Mrs. Hitchcock, June 15, 1901. The hall was com- 
pleted and occupied by students October i, 1902. It 
was the largest of the residence halls, having, not only 
rooms for ninety-three students, but a clubroom, in- 
firmary, breakfast room, and a large and attractive 
library room. A cloister running along the south front 
united the five divisions and gave unity to the whole. 
The building was at the northwest corner of the origi- 
nal site, looking north on Fifty-seventh Street. 

The cornerstones of six buildings were laid during 
the Decennial Celebration of June, 1901. It was at 



^[ 156 ]4> 



this time that Dean George Vincent said in one of his 
speeches that the makers of the program for the Cele- 
bration had evidently been controlled by this prin- 
ciple: *'When in doubt lay a cornerstone." Four of 
these cornerstones were laid on June 18, the last day 
of the Celebration. These represented the four build- 
ings on the southwest corner of Fifty-seventh Street 
and University Avenue, known as the Tower Group — 
Hutchinson Hall, Mitchell Tower, Reynolds Club 
House, and Mandel Assembly Hall. The funds for 
this noble group were provided by Charles L. Hutch- 
inson, John J. Mitchell, Harold F. McCormick, Leon 
Mandel, Mr. Rockefeller, and the estate of Joseph 
Reynolds. 

The Mitchell Tower was made the central feature 
of the group. It was modeled after the famous Mag- 
dalen Tower of Oxford. To Oxford also the archi- 
tect, Charles A. Coolidge, went for the plan of the 
dining-hall, finding the original in the dining-hall of 
Christ Church. In the grouping of the four buildings 
Hutchinson Hall was placed west of the Tower along 
Fifty-seventh Street. East of the Tower and running 
south on University Avenue was the Reynolds Club 
House. The entrance through the Tower led to a 
cloister twenty feet wide extending along the west side 
of the Club House and leading to Mandel Assembly 
Hall, which was the southern building of the group. 
The Tower gave entrance to the Commons, and the 



^[ 157 ]^ 



cloister to the Commons Cafe and the Club House, 
as well as to Mandel Hall. Two doors also connected 
the cloister with Hutchinson Court. Mandel Hall 
opened on the street and on the court at both front 
and rear, giving ample entrances and exits. The for- 
mal opening of the Group took place December 22, 
1903, though the various buildings had been occupied 
in the preceding October. The cost of the entire group 
was 3^424,000. The University never expended money 
more profitably than in the erection of this beautiful 
group of buildings. In the Tower were installed the 
Alice Freeman Palmer Chimes. In the great hall of 
Hutchinson were hung portraits of the Founder, presi- 
dents, and others. There the men students took their 
meals. Convocation receptions were held, alumni ban- 
quets, football feasts, and other festivities took place, 
making it a center of University social life. Reynolds 
was the center of the social Hfe of the men students, 
while Mandel with its concerts, dramatic perform- 
ances, lectures, educational conferences, oratorical 
contests, intercollegiate debates, athletic mass-meet- 
ings, daily chapel assemblies, Sunday preaching serv- 
ices. Convocations, and other assemblies was a place 
of multiplied interests. 

While the Tower Group was going up another in- 
teresting building was provided. The gymnasium was 
made possible by the contribution of J 150,000 from 
A. C. Bartlett, a member of the board of trustees. 



<^[ 158 ]4> 



Mr. Bartlett had lost his well-loved younger son in 
July, 1900, and, desiring to build a memorial of his 
boy, who, at the time of his death, was a student in 
Harvard, he made this large donation for the erection 
of the Frank Dickinson Bartlett Gymnasium. It was 
located on University Avenue north of Fifty-seventh 
Street, opening to the east on the avenue and to the 
west on the athletic field. The cornerstone was laid 
on Thanksgiving Day, November 28, 1901, in the 
presence of a crowd of enthusiastic students. The 
dedication took place January 29, 1904. The building 
cost $238,000. The memorial window, given by J. G. 
Hibbard, over the front entrance, representing the 
crowning of Ivanhoe by Rowena, and the mural paint- 
ing in the entrance picturing athletic contests were 
attractive features. 

On the wall above the door facing the front en- 
trance was a shield bearing the following inscription: 

Litterae Vires Scientia 

TO 

THE Advancement of 
Physical Education 

AND 

The Glory of Manly Sports 

This Gymnasium Is Dedicated 

TO THE Memory of 

FRANK DICKINSON BARTLETT 

A.D. 1 880-1900 



^[ 159 ]4> 



This shield and inscription and the mural painting 
of which they were the central features were the work 
of Frank Bartlett's brother, Frederic C. Bartlett. 

The Law Building of the University does not bear 
the name of any donor. It waits a contribution from 
someone who has the honorable ambition of connect- 
ing his name with the Law School and the University. 
That the School should have a building was taken for 
granted, but no one being found to supply the funds, 
Mr. Rockefeller advanced them until some patron 
should appear who would pay for the building and 
give it a name. The University is still looking for such 
a patron. 

The Law Building had the great distinction of 
bringing to the University President Theodore Roose- 
velt to lay its cornerstone. On the day of that cere- 
mony a special Convocation was held and the degree 
of Doctor of Laws was conferred on the illustrious 
guest. The day was April 2, 1903, a red-letter day in 
the history of the University. Mr. Roosevelt said in 
the course of his address : 

We need to produce, not genius, not brilliancy, but the home- 
ly, commonplace, elemental virtues Brilliancy and genius ? 

Yes, if we can have them in addition to the other virtues 

You need honesty, you need courage, and you need common 
sense. Above all you need them in the work to be done in the 
building the cornerstone of which we have laid today, the Law 
School out of which are to come the men who at the bar and on 
the bench make and construe, and in construing make the laws of 



^[ 1 60 ]4> 



this country; the men who must teach by their actions to all our 
people that this is in fact essentially a government of orderly 
liberty under the law. 

The Law Building was finished and occupied at the 
opening of the Spring Quarter, 1904. Its cost was 
$2485653. It was three stories high, 175 feet long, and 
80 feet wide, built like the other buildings of Bedford 
stone in the English Gothic style of architecture. It 
was designed by Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge. 

The first permanent building of the School of Edu- 
cation was a part of the great contribution of Mrs. 
Emmons Blaine. The plans were made by the archi- 
tect, James Gamble Rogers. The building was fin- 
ished and occupied in October, 1903. It cost $394,500. 
In January, 1904, it was named Emmons Blaine Hall 
in memory of Mrs. Blaine's deceased husband, Em- 
mons Blaine, son of Hon. James G. Blaine. The dedi- 
cation of the building, delayed until May i, 1904, 
was celebrated with elaborate ceremonies continuing 
through two days. The hall covered the entire Fifty- 
ninth Street front of the block between Kimbark and 
Kenwood avenues, and, with its wings, extended 160 
feet north on both these avenues. The main building 
was designed to give the best possible accommoda- 
tions for the College for Teachers, the Elementary 
School, and the Kindergarten, laboratory schools for 
the College. 

The plan of organization of the School of Educa- 



^[ i6i ]4> 



tion made the Chicago Manual Training School and 
the South Side Academy constituent parts of it and 
contemplated the union of these schools into the Uni- 
versity High School. A building was needed therefore 
for the High School, and plans for it were made. 

The cornerstone was laid with much ceremony in 
connection with the June, 1903, Convocation, and 
the building was finished in May, 1904, and was dedi- 
cated at the same time as Emmons Blaine Hall. In 
the dedicatory exercises the Commercial Club of 
Chicago, which founded the Manual Training School, 
was officially represented by Mr. A. C. Bartlett, who 
made an address on behalf of the Club. The cost of 
the building was $220,000 and was defrayed almost 
entirely by the proceeds of the sale of the old Manual 
Training School property on Michigan Avenue and 
Twelfth Street. The new building was named Bel- 
field Hall in honor of H. H. Belfield, who was principal 
of the Chicago Manual Training School from its es- 
tabhshment in 1882 until it became the University 
High School in 1903, and who continued as a dean 
of that School until his retirement in 1908, a period of 
twenty-six years. 

Belfield Hall was located north of Emmons Blaine 
Hall and extended across the middle of the block, 
fronting on both Kenwood and Kimbark avenues. 
The three-story structures on these avenues were con- 
nected by the one-story shops devoted to manual 



<^[ 162 ]4> 



training, making a single building four hundred feet 
in length, along the entire south side of which ran a 
wide corridor giving convenient access to all the rooms 
of the first floor. The High School soon outgrew even 
this large building and compelled the transformation 
of a large adjacent apartment building on Kimbark 
Avenue into recitation rooms. 

When in October, 1902, the University adopted 
what was popularly known as the policy of segrega- 
tion, in accordance with which the men and women 
students of the Junior Colleges were to meet in sepa- 
rate classes, two buildings were needed for the two 
sexes. Ellis Hall was assigned to the Junior College 
men and another temporary building was erected for 
the Junior College women. It was located on the east 
side of Lexington, now University Avenue, midway 
between Fifty-eighth and Fifty-ninth streets, and was 
named Lexington Hall. It was built of pressed brick 
and made a better appearance than Ellis Hall. It con- 
tained fourteen recitation rooms, a library room, a 
large luncheon room, a rest room, executive offices, 
and cloak rooms. The Young Women's Christian 
League and other organizations of women students 
were assigned rooms in the building. Connected with 
the main structure was a women's gymnasium. Lex- 
ington Hall was built during the winter of 1902-3 and 
was occupied in the Spring Quarter of 1903. 

The thirteen buildings of the period here under re- 



^[ 163 ]^ 



view cost $2,313,000, a sum considerably in excess of 
that of the first two eras of building combined. They 
added immensely to the external equipment of the 
University, making that equipment, not entirely, 
but more nearly commensurate with its needs. The 
architectural plan, which had been looked upon as a 
dream of enthusiasts that might be realized in a hun- 
dred years perhaps, was actually materializing in en- 
during stone before men's eyes, and nothing any long- 
er seemed impossible. 



XIV 

SOME IMTORrAD^ EVEU^S 



IN THE course of this narrative the story of many 
important events in the history of the University 
has been told. There are, however, others which 
are so essential a part of that history as to demand at- 
tention and for which no place has yet been found. 
Events so crowded upon each other in the history of 
the University, the historical material is so super- 
abundant, that it has been necessary to make careful 
selection, and, passing by many events that might be 
of interest, direct attention to those that touched 
most vitally the life of the institution. 

The first of these occurred in the first year. The 
professors, strangers to one another and feeling the 
need of better acquaintance and Icloser fellowship, got 
together and organized in 1893 the Quadrangle Club. 
Its first president was Harry Pratt Judson, later presi- 
dent of the University. The first clubhouse was built 
on the southeast corner of University Avenue and 
Fifty-eighth Street and was finished and occupied in 
the spring of 1896. On Christmas morning of that 
year it was practically destroyed by fire. A new build- 

<#[ 164 ]4> 



M 165 ]4> 



ing, nearly or quite twice the size of the old one, was 
begun at once and was ready for occupancy within 
six months. 

The constitution of the Club stated that it was 
"instituted for the association of members of the fac- 
ulties of the University of Chicago and other persons 
interested in Literature, Science, or Art." This pur- 
pose of acquaintance and fellowship it accomplished 
with very large success. It is not too much to say that 
it was to the Quadrangle Club that the University 
largely owed the extraordinary spirit of unity and 
fellowship that prevailed between schools, depart- 
ments, professors, officers of administration, trustees, 
and alumni. The Club gave to its members the ad- 
vantages of tennis courts, a reading-room, dining- 
room, billiard-room, living-rooms, and committee 
rooms, with entertainments of many kinds. In 1916 
the Club made an arrangement in accordance with 
which its property passed into the possession of the 
University, and in 1922-23 a larger and finer club- 
house was built on the southeast corner of University 
Avenue and Fifty-seventh Street. In this new home 
the Quadrangle Club, with greatly improved facilities, 
promised to occupy a place of increasing usefulness 
and power in the developing life of the University. 

The next important event not hitherto considered 
was the institution of the Summer Quarter. Few 
things so interesting, or so extraordinary in results. 



<^[ i66 ]4> 



occurred during the early history of the University. 
It was an absolutely new thing in universities. There 
was only one Summer Quarter anywhere, that of the 
University of Chicago. The University year con- 
sisted of four quarters, summer, autumn, winter, 
spring, of eleven or twelve weeks each. Thus the Sum- 
mer Quarter was not a summer school, but a Uni- 
versity quarter, during which the University was in 
regular session, with a full corps of instructors in all 
departments, and with students doing their regular 
work, from the Freshman just entering the Junior Col- 
lege up through all grades and all departments to the 
man doing the most advanced work and earning at 
the end of it his degree as a Doctor of Philosophy. In 
1892 such a Summer Quarter was wholly unknown. 
Its incorporation into the plan of organization of a 
university was an unheard-of innovation. To insti- 
tute it would be a new experiment in university edu- 
cation. This was done in the summer of 1894, the first 
quarter of the University's third year. From the first 
it was inspiringly successful. One of the surprises of 
its development was the great and annually increas- 
ing number of graduate students it attracted. There 
was no Summer Quarter in University College, the 
down-town department. But because of its attraction 
for graduate students, this quarter, in the quad- 
rangles, came to be the great quarter of the year, 
drawing to the University every summer more than 



^[ 167 ]4> 



4,000 men and women studying for higher degrees. 
In this first third of a century the total attendance of 
graduates and undergraduates rose to about 6,500 
every summer. 

With the four-quarter system of which it was the 
heart, the Summer Quarter was the greatest inspira- 
tion of President Harper's educational plan. It not 
only gave to capable students the chance to take a 
complete college course in three years, but it also gave 
the opportunity to ministers, professors in universi- 
ties, colleges, and normal schools, teachers in high 
schools, academies, and elementary schools, to con- 
tinue their studies in a university during one of its 
regular sessions when all its activities were in opera- 
tion and courses of instruction were offered which met 
the needs of the most advanced students. The service 
of the Summer Quarter to this great class was inesti- 
mable. It enlarged mental horizons, it quickened in- 
tellectual pulses, it refreshed and enriched minds, it 
reformed methods of teaching, it kindled ambition for 
further progress, and sent preachers and teachers back 
to their churches and classrooms with enlarged re- 
sources, filled with new ideas about their work, their 
minds fertile in new plans, and in many ways equipped 
for increased efficiency. 

For the first seven years the Summer Quarter 
opened July i and continued till September 22. As 
this left no vacation period, the calendar, after 1900, 



^[ i68 ]4> 



was so changed that the opening of the quarter was 
carried back to the middle of June and it was made 
to end with the close of August, three weeks earlier 
than before. This change, providing the whole of 
September for a vacation, greatly increased the value 
and attractiveness of the quarter. The second term 
of the quarter showed a greatly increased attendance. 

The authorities gave constant study to methods of 
increasing the value of the Summer Quarter to stu- 
dents. Increasing numbers of eminent instructors 
from other universities were employed. The number 
of courses of study multiplied. Public lectures, some- 
times numbering 200, were given covering many de- 
partments of learning, and were open without charge 
to all students and to the public. 

In July, 1896, the first anniversary celebration of 
the University was held — the Quinquennial. Haskell 
Oriental Museum was dedicated, the cornerstones of 
the four Hull Biological Laboratories were laid. On 
July 4, the national colors were presented to the Uni- 
versity by the First Regiment of Infantry of the 
Illinois National Guard and an oration was delivered 
by Professor Bernard Moses of the University of Cali- 
fornia on "The Condition and Prospects of Democra- 
cy." On the final day of celebration, Sunday, July 5, 
sermons were preached by Dr. George Adam Smith, 
of Glasgow, Scotland, and Dr. W. H. P. Faunce, of 
New York, in the Convocation tent. 



<^[ 169 ]4> 



But perhaps that which made the Quinquennial 
Celebration most interesting to the University was 
the presence of the Founder. Mr. Rockefeller had 
never before visited the institution. The students 
sang with great enthusiasm: ''John D. Rockefeller, 
wonderful man is he, Gives all his spare change to the 
U. of C," and they were anxious to see his face. He 
was given a great reception, and by his modest de- 
meanor, affable manner, and evident enjoyment of 
the celebration won all hearts. The Convocation was 
held in a large tent pitched in the central quadrangle. 
Responding to congratulatory addresses, Mr. Rocke- 
feller made an address, in the course of which he said: 

I want to thank your board of trustees, your president, and 
all who have shared in this most wonderful beginning. It is but a 
beginning, and you are going on; you have the privilege to com- 
plete it, you and your sons and daughters. I believe in the work. 
It is the best investment I ever made in my life. Why shouldn't 
people give to the University of Chicago money, time, their best 
efforts ? Why not ? It is the grandest opportunity ever pre- 
sented. Where were gathered, ever, a better board of trustees, a 
better faculty ^ I am profoundly, profoundly thankful that I had 
anything to do with this affair. The good Lord gave me the 
money, and how could I withhold it from Chicago ^ 

Sunday religious services were a part of the Uni- 
versity program from the beginning. With no fitting 
assembly hall they were sustained under adverse 
conditions. With Mandel Hall in prospect, however, 
came a change. An appropriation of ^4,000 a year 



^[ 170 ]4> 



was placed in the budget to enable the University to 
engage the services of the most distinguished preach- 
ers of all denominations, who should reside at the Uni- 
versity one, two, three, or four weeks, speaking on 
week days at the chapel assemblies, preaching on Sun- 
day, and consulting at definite hours with any of the 
students who wished to talk with them. These emi- 
nent men became known as the University Preachers. 
The University Preacher grew to be so much a part of 
the University life and so useful a part that he came 
to be regarded as an essential part of it. 

In June, 1901, the University commemorated its 
tenth anniversary. The laying of the cornerstones of 
Hitchcock, the Press Building, and the Tower Group, 
the dedication of the addition to Foster, and the for- 
mal opening of the School of Education were a part of 
this Decennial Celebration. One of the student con- 
tributions to the interest of the celebration was the 
presentation in the open air, north of Haskell, on the 
site of the Theology Building (which is going up as 
this is written) of As You Like It^ which was so well 
done as to call for a second presentation. Another 
was the gift by the "decennial class" of a bronze tab- 
let showing a likeness of Stephen A. Douglas, who 
gave the site of the earlier University. This tablet was 
later placed on the wall of the cloister of the Tower 
Group. Educational conferences were held, and there 
were many lectures, sermons, and addresses. 



M 171 ]^ 



The Decennial like the Quinquennial was made 
memorable by the presence of Mr. Rockefeller. This 
was the second, and as it proved the last, visit of the 
Founder. The Convocation was held in a great tent in 
the middle of the central quadrangle. Following the 
other speakers, Mr. Rockefeller spoke. He congratu- 
lated the University, spoke sympathetically and wise- 
ly to the students, and concluded as follows: 

Citizens of Chicago, it affords me great pleasure to say to you 
that your kindly interest in, and generous support of this Uni- 
versity have been of the greatest encouragement to all those in- 
terested in its welfare, and have also stimulated others to con- 
tribute to its advancement. It is possible for you to make this 
University an increasing power for good, not only for the city of 
Chicago, but for our entire country, and indeed the whole world. 

The success of the University of Chicago is assured, and we 
are here today rejoicing in that success. All praise to Chicago! 
Long may she live, to foster and develop this sturdy representa- 
tive of her enterprise and public spirit! 

Far and away the most important event connected 
with the celebration of the tenth anniversary was the 
issuing by the University Press of the Decennial Pub- 
lications. President Harper felt that there could be no 
more appropriate way of celebrating the anniversary 
of a University than the production and publication 
of books by its scholars. At the outset it was proposed 
to publish three volumes. But in the end these in- 
creased to ten quarto volumes, which were equiva- 
lent to twenty octavo volumes of five hundred pages 



^[ 172 ]4> 



each, and eighteen other octavos, making the total 
number, if all had been in octavo, thirty-eight, and 
involving an expense of above 150,000. 

It was not expected that the Decennial Publica- 
tions would return a financial profit. They did not. A 
very large number of volumes were distributed gratui- 
tously among the libraries of the world. But it should 
be added that thousands were also sold. A number of 
books went to several editions. More than half the 
expenditure involved was returned from the sale of 
the publications, and this sale had not ceased at the 
end of the first third of a century. The Decennial 
Publications contained the work of eighty-one con- 
tributors. President Harper said of them: 

It is safe to say that no series of scientific publications so com- 
prehensive in its scope and of so great a magnitude has ever been 
issued at any one time by any learned society or institution, or 
by private enterprise. 

There was one great tragedy in these early years 
of the University — the death of President Harper. In 
1903, with no suspicion of the nature of his trouble, 
his friends began to see that his labors were wearing 
on him and persuaded him to go abroad for rest. He 
was absent from the University fifteen weeks. On his 
return he made a written report of extraordinary ac- 
tivities in the interest of the University, which had 
taken him to London, Berlin, and Constantinople. 
He had spent five weeks in rest and ten in arduous 



^[ 173 ]^ 



service. Quite unconscious himself of his hidden mal- 
ady he wondered why his sense of weariness contin- 
ued. In January, 1904, the trustees gave him six 
months' leave of absence which he did not take. On 
March i he underwent a serious operation for appen- 
dicitis from which he made a quick recovery and pre- 
sided on March 18 at the president's dinner to official 
guests of the Fiftieth Convocation, at the Quad- 
rangle Club. Hopes of his recovery, however, were 
disappointed. About the middle of the year, 1904, he 
sent for Major Rust and me and said to us: "I have 
asked you to come to say to you that I have today 
received my death sentence from my physicians. 
They have discovered that my trouble is internal 
cancer." Thus a year and a half before his death he 
knew what was before him. Every means of relief was 
tried in vain. 

The story of the heroism of those eighteen months 
is well known. He labored to the last. In February 
and March, 1905, four new books from his pen ap- 
peared — The Trend in Higher Education; a revised and 
enlarged edition of The Priestly Element in the Old 
Testament; The Structure of the Text of the Book of 
HoseUy and the Commentary on Amos and Hosea. He 
continued to meet with trustees regularly until Au- 
gust 29, 1905, and to preside at most of the quarterly 
Convocations up to and including that of September 
I, 1905. In the autumn of that year he published an- 



<^[ 174 ]4> 



other book: The Prophetic Element in the Old Testa- 
ment. In December, the last month of his life, he be- 
gan to prepare the quarterly statement for the Janu- 
uary Convocation, but was able to make a beginning 
only. This fragment contained about seven hundred 
words and was printed in the University Record of 
January, 1906. President Harper died on January 10, 
1906, in the fiftieth year of his age and the fifteenth 
of his presidency. 

Rarely has a man met death in so serene a spirit. 
It did not come as a surprise. In consultation with 
Dr. Judson he prepared in full detail the program for 
his funeral. It was like him to request that except the 
half-day of the funeral "all University regular exer- 
cises be continued." It fell to me as secretary of the 
board to call on him a day or two before his death to 
tell him of the business transacted by the trustees at 
a meeting they had just held, in which he was much 
interested. Some foolish statements that have been 
made as to Dr. Harper's religious experiences during 
the closing days of his life lead to the relation of the 
following part of this interview. He introduced the 
subject of his death, then so imminent, and said, in 
answer to a question, that his "faith was infinitely 
stronger and sweeter than ever before" and repeated 
twice over "infinitely, infinitely," with a depth of 
feeling his hearer can never forget. The only thing 
that seemed to be troubling him was the question 



M 175 ]^ 



whether there was anything more he could do for cer- 
tain members of the University whom he named. 
So, seeking to the last to do some service to others, 
"passed the great heroic soul away." It was the end 
of an era in the University's life. 



XV 

TROgRESS U:NipER TRESIDENT 
yUDSON 

j1 T THE time of President Harper's death Dr. 
ZA Harry Pratt Judson was performing the presi- 
-A- JL(Jent's duties. Dr. Judson had been one of the 
men summoned to the president's assistance in the 
summer of 1892 to assist in the general work of organ- 
izing the University. He had exhibited such practical 
wisdom, such organizing skill, and such genius for ad- 
ministration that as dean of the faculties he had from 
the beginning been the second officer in the University. 
When the president was absent Dean Judson per- 
formed his duties. If a proposed policy was questioned 
he was called in to advise with the trustees. When 
the first foreshadowings of President Harper's illness 
sent him abroad for rest in 1903, Dr. Judson was "re- 
quested" by the trustees "to assume the responsibili- 
ties of the president's office during President Harper's 
absence." In 1904 and 1905, whenever the president 
could not do so, Dr. Judson attended the board meet- 
ings in his place and presided at faculty meetings and 
Convocations. During the closing months of 1905 he 
was virtually president of the University. When in 

^[i76]4> 




President Harry Pratt Judson 



^[ 177 ]^ 



December President Harper wrote to the trustees that 
he was at last ready to accept the six months' vaca- 
tion they had been pressing on him for two years, he 
recommended that, "as usual," during his absence the 
administration be placed in the hands of Dr. Judson. 
This was done as a matter of course. Ten days after 
the death of President Harper the trustees appointed 
Dr. Judson "acting president to serve until the ap- 
pointment of a permanent president." 

No committee on the nomination of a president 
was appointed for more than a year. Meantime the 
work went on with increasing prosperity. The attend- 
ance of students in the Summer Quarter of 1906 was 
greater than ever before. The Nominating Commit- 
tee was finally appointed February 15, 1907. The 
Committee had a number of eminent men suggested 
to it. But Dr. Judson had conducted the affairs of the 
University with such wisdom, ability, and success that 
his election was a logical necessity of the situation. 
One week after its appointment the committee sub- 
mitted the following report: 

Your committee appointed to nominate a president of the 
University respectfully report: That the committee heartily and 
unanimously recommend to the board that Mr. Harry Pratt 
Judson, now acting president, be elected president of the Uni- 
versity. 

The recommendation was unanimously adopted and 
Dr. Judson having been called into the board room 



^[ 178 ]4> 



made a brief address accepting the position. Thus 
simply was the great question settled and the Uni- 
versity once more had a president. The installation 
of the new president took place in connection with the 
Sixty-second Convocation on March 19, 1907. In ac- 
cordance with his earnest request there were no elabo- 
rate ceremonies, only a simple announcement of his 
election by Mr. Ryerson, president of the board of 
trustees, as simple an acceptance on his part, and 
President Judson quietly entered upon his great 
duties. 

He conceived the first of these duties to be to bring 
the finances under complete control and end the strug- 
gle with the annual expenditures deficit by overcom- 
ing it. It required a high quality of courage, but this 
President Judson possessed. He displayed it so con- 
spicuously as to call forth from the Founder an un- 
paralleled succession of contributions. These includ- 
ed great gifts for current expenses, lands, buildings, 
and endowments. In 1906 and 1907, Mr. Rockefeller 
provided for the estimated deficits of those years. In 
January of 1906 he gave $1,100,000 for endowment, 
and in December of the same year he contributed 
$2,700,000 to the permanent endowment funds. On 
December 30, 1907, he made another endowment con- 
tribution of $1,400,000 and in January, 1909, still an- 
other for the same purpose of $862,125. It is not to 
be wondered at that with such extraordinary offer- 



^[ 179 ]^ 



ings the annual deficits of fifteen years were brought 
to an end. But this does not tell half the story. It 
was during these years that Mr. Rockefeller gave to 
the University the lands fronting north and south on 
the Midway Plaisance extending east from Washing- 
ton Park and, with the grounds before owned, giving 
the institution a frontage of ten blocks on both sides 
of the Plaisance. This gift of land, enlarging the origi- 
nal site to about one hundred acres, as already told, 
had cost the donor $3,229,775. Then came in 1910 
what is known as Mr. Rockefeller's final gift of 
$10,000,000. The reader will want to see the letter 
of gift, which was as follows : 

26 Broadway, New York 

December 13, 1910 

To the President and Trustees of the University of Chicago: 

Dear Sirs: I have this day caused to be set aside for the Uni- 
versity of Chicago from the funds of the General Education Board 
which are subject to my disposition, income-bearing securities of 
the present market value of approximately ten million dollars 
(|io,ooo,coo), the same to be delivered to the University in ten 
equal annual instalments beginning January i, 191 1, each instal- 
ment to bear income to the University from the date of such de- 
livery only. A list of these securities is appended. In a separate 
letter of even date my wishes regarding the investment and uses 
of the fund are more specifically expressed. 

It is far better that the University be supported and enlarged 
by the gifts of many than by those of a single donor. This I have 
recognized from the beginning, and, accordingly, have sought to 



<^[ i8o ]4> 



assist you in enlisting the interest and securing the contributions 
of many others, and at times by aiding you by means of uncon- 
ditional gifts to make the University as widely useful, worthy and 
attractive as possible. Most heartily do I recognize and rejoice in 
the generous response of the citizens of Chicago and the West. 
Their contributions to the resources of the University have been, 
I believe, more than seven million dollars. It might perhaps be 
difficult to find a parallel to generosity so large and so widely dis- 
tributed as this exercised in behalf of an institution so recently 
founded. I desire to express my appreciation also of the extraor- 
dinary wisdom and fidelity which you, as president and trustees, 
have shown in conducting the affairs of the University. In the 
multitude of students so quickly gathered, in the high character 
of the instruction, in the variety and extent of original research, 
in the valuable contributions to human knowledge, in the up- 
lifting influence of the University as a whole upon education 
throughout the West, my highest hopes have been far exceeded. 

It is these considerations, with others, that move me to sum 
up in a single and final gift, distributing its payments over a 
period of many years to come, such further contributions as I 
have purposed to make to the University. The sum I now give is 
intended to make provision, with such gifts as may reasonably 
be expected from others, for such added buildings, equipment, 
and endowment as the departments thus far established will need. 
This gift completes the task which I have set before myself. The 
founding and support of new departments, or the development of 
the varied and alluring fields of applied science, including medi- 
cine, I leave to the wisdom of the trustees, as funds may be 
furnished for these purposes by other friends of the University. 

In making an end to my gifts to the University, as I now do, 
and in withdrawing from the board of trustees my personal rep- 
resentatives, whose resignations I inclose, I am acting on an early 
and permanent conviction that this great institution, being the 



I8l 



property of the people, should be controlled, conducted, and sup- 
ported by the people, in whose generous efforts for its upbuilding 
I have been permitted simply to co-operate; and I could wish to 
consecrate anew to the great cause of education the funds which I 
have given, if that were possible; to present the institution a sec- 
ond time, in so far as I have aided in founding it, to the people of 
Chicago and the West; and to express my hope that under their 
management and with their generous support, the University 
may be an increasing blessing to them, to their children, and to 

future generations. ^. , 

Very truly yours, 

John D. Rockefeller 

In the letter of designation Mr. Rockefeller said: 

It is my desire that at least the sum of one million five hun- 
dred thousand dollars (|i, 500,000) be used for the erection and 
furnishing of a University Chapel. As the spirit of religion should 
penetrate and control the University, so that building which rep- 
resents religion ought to be the central and dominant feature of 
the University group. The Chapel may appropriately embody 
those architectural ideals from which the other buildings, now so 
beautifully harmonious, have taken their spirit, so that all the 
other buildings on the campus will seem to have caught their in- 
spiration from the Chapel, and in turn will seem to be contributing 
of their worthiest to the Chapel. In this way the group of Uni- 
versity buildings, with the Chapel centrally located and dominant 
in its architecture, may proclaim that the University, in its ideal, 
is dominated by the spirit of religion, all its departments are in- 
spired by the religious fcelmgy and all its work is directed to the 
highest ends 

Apart from what may be required for the Chapel, the re- 
mainder of the fund may be used, in the discretion of the Trustees, 
for land, buildings, or endowment, but no part of the principal 



<¥[ i82 ]4> 



sum shall be used for current expenses. No doubt other donors 
will offer the University many, if not all, of its needed buildings. 
Legacies now written in wills, or to be written, will become avail- 
able from time to time for these and other purposes. I hope, 
therefore, that this final gift from me may be used for endowment 
as far as practicable. 

Meantime there had been other lesser contribu- 
tions from Mr. Rockefeller. Such is the incredible 
story of this hitherto unheard-of munificence. In the 
brief period of less than six years after the beginning 
of Dr. Judson's administration, Mr. Rockefeller had 
given the University more than 120,000,000, bring- 
ing his total gifts up to a trifle less than $35,000,000. 

Soon after the beginning of the administration of 
President Judson a new movement was begun which 
turned out to be a most important step in expansion. 
The College of Commerce and Politics was organized 
in response to the growing demand for courses which 
should fit students for careers in the practical pro- 
fessions of the various branches of business, philan- 
thropic work, and public service. It quickly devel- 
oped into the College of Commerce and Adminis- 
tration and ranked as a separate professional school. 
It grew in attendance and expense. Its demands be- 
came so great and at the same time so imperative as 
to be a burden on the budget. They were becoming a 
source of serious anxiety to President Judson when 
one day in 191 6 an inquiry reached Wallace Heck- 



^[ 183 ]4> 



man, the business manager, over the telephone and 
from a stranger, asking to whom a deed should run of 
an important piece of property, the income of which 
should be devoted, so far as necessary, to instruction 
along these particular lines. The inquirer was Hobart 
W. Williams, of Cheshire, Connecticut, son of one of 
the Chicago pioneers. He had been brought up in Chi- 
cago and was deeply attached to it. He immediately 
deeded to the University the Williams Block, a six- 
story building, 1 60X171 feet, standing on the site 
occupied in the middle of the last century by the Wil- 
liams family homestead at the southeast corner of 
Wabash Avenue and Monroe Street. The smallest 
valuation placed on the property was ^2,000,000, 
and it is now worth nearer ^3,000,000. This made Mr. 
Williams the largest contributor, after Mr. Rocke- 
feller, to the University's funds, during the first quar- 
ter-century of its history. 

The next great giver to emphasize the financial 
progress made under President Judson was La Verne 
Noyes, a Chicago business man. He had become in- 
terested in the University through his acquaintance 
with President and Mrs. Judson. Having lost his wife, 
to whom he was deeply attached, he decided a year 
later, on the suggestion of Mrs. Judson, to make a 
memorial of her in connection with the University in 
a building for women students. The result was a gift 
from Mr. Noyes of ^500,000 for the building of Ida 



^[ 184 ]4> 



Noyes Hall. But he did not stop with this. Stirred 
by the great world-war, in 191 8 he gave to the Uni- 
versity properties worth about $2,000,000 as an en- 
dowment for scholarships for soldiers of the war and 
their descendants, though 20 per cent of the income 
may be devoted to the salaries of professors. In 1923- 
24 the income of the Noyes Foundation was $98,761. 
The year 191 6-1 7 was made memorable by the 
great step taken in advancing the plans for the Medi- 
cal School which had been projected twenty years be- 
fore. In the later weeks of 191 6 the General Educa- 
tion Board and the Rockefeller Foundation agreed to 
give $1,000,000 each toward a fund of $5,300,000 for 
a medical school. The fund was raised in an astonish- 
ingly short time. The first great gift was one of $500,- 
000 from Mr. and Mrs. Julius Rosenwald. For the 
Albert M. Billings Memorial Hospital $1,000,000 was 
contributed by C. K. G. Billings, Charles H. and 
Albert Billings Ruddock, and Dr. Frank Billings. Mr. 
and Mrs. Frederick H. Rawson gave $300,000 for a 
medical laboratory. Martin A. Ryerson contributed 
$250,000, J. Ogden Armour $200,000, Dr. Norman 
Bridge $130,000, R. T. Crane, Jr., and Charles R. 
Crane $125,000 each, and Mrs. G.F.Swift, Charles H. 
Swift, and Harold H. Swift gave $100,000 each. Mr. 
and Mrs. Max Epstein gave $100,000 for the erection 
of a Dispensary in connection with the Hospital. 
Edward Morris, N. M. Kaufman, A. D. Thomson, 




Ida Noyes Hall 



<^[ 185 ]^ 



David B. Jones, and Thomas D. Jones each gave 
^50,000. Frank G. Logan gave ^47,500, and John G. 
Shedd and Frederick T. Haskell ^25,000 each. Charles 
F. Grey gave JiOjOOO, and F. A. Hardy and Mrs. 
George M. Pullman ? 10,000 each. There were six- 
teen other contributions ranging from $5,000 to $500, 
and the total amount of the fund was $5,461,500. 
Such was the liberality and interest of the contribu- 
tors that this great sum was subscribed within six 
months after the campaign was begun. 

In the same year with this great achievement, 
$200,000 was given for the erection of a Theology 
Building by an anonymous donor and later the sum 
was increased to $300,000 by the same generous 
friend. 

In 1 91 6-1 7 also Mrs. Joseph Bond gave to the 
University stocks which later sold for about $70,000 
for the building of the Divinity School chapel as a 
memorial of her husband, who had been a trustee of 
the School and the first president of the American 
Radiator Company. 

In 191 8 Andrew MacLeish, who had been a mem- 
ber of the board of trustees from the beginning in 1890 
and vice-president of the board from 1892, gave the 
University $100,000 for the erection of a building, 
with an expression of preference for an administra- 
tion building. At the time of the publication of this 
book this fund had grown by accretions of interest 



<^[ i86 ]4> 



and the increased value of the securities to about 

j^ 200,000. 

In 1 91 9 John D. Rockefeller, Jr., gave a fund to 
establish for a trial period of ^ve years the Oriental 
Institute of the University for exploration and re- 
search in the Orient. The results were so encourag- 
ing that he has increased the fund to some $400,000. 
A building has been erected by Dr. Breasted, head of 
the Institute at Luxor on the Nile, for the permanent 
work of the Institute in Egypt. 

I end this recital of special contributions made to 
the University during President Judson's adminis- 
tration with the Harris Memorial. In the very last 
days of that administration, Mr. and Mrs. M. Had- 
don MacLean and the sons of Mr. Harris, Albert 
W. Harris, Norman D. Harris, Hayden B. Harris, and 
Stanley G. Harris, gave the University $150,000 for 
the endowment of the Norman Wait Harris Memorial 
Foundation, in memory of Norman Wait Harris, for 
many years one of the leading business men of Chi- 
cago and head of the Harris Trust and Savings Bank. 
The fund was given in the name of Mrs. N. W. Harris. 
The income of this endowment was to be expended 
for the "promotion of a better understanding on the 
part of American citizens of the other peoples of the 
world, thus establishing a basis for improved inter- 
national relations and a more enlightened world- 
order." The first conferences under the Harris Foun- 




Chicago House, Luxor, Egypt 



^[ 187 ]4> 



dation were held at the University during the Summer 
Quarter of 1924. Lectures were delivered by emi- 
nent men of other countries and heard with great 
interest. 

In this review I have indicated only the larger gifts 
to the University made during the administration of 
President Judson. There were hundreds of smaller 
contributions which the limits of this book do not 
permit me to speak of in detail. Many of them were 
interesting and important and all marked steady 
progress in the development of the institution. The 
aggregate of all these gifts, large and small, was ex- 
traordinary. When President Judson assumed office 
in 1906 the assets of the University were about 
$18,000,000. At the close of his administration in 
1923 they exceeded $50,000,000, an increase of $32,- 
000,000. While some of this increase must be attrib- 
uted to enhancement in value of some of the assets, it 
is safe to say that the actual contributions of those 
seventeen years aggregated nearly or quite $30,000,- 
000. Such was the financial progress made during 
President Judson's administration. 

But this was only a single element of the progress 
achieved. The growth of the University in the at- 
tendance of students was quite as remarkable. In 1905 
the total attendance was 4,598. In 1923, when Presi- 
dent Judson's administration ended, it exceeded 
12,600. 



<^[ i88 ]#> 



One of the important progressive steps taken under 
President Judson was the formal adoption by the 
trustees of the system of Retiring Allowances and 
Allowances for Widows. This important subject had 
been before the trustees for ten years or more before 
the system was finally matured. Both presidents had 
strongly urged it. During the earlier years in which 
the plan was under consideration the University was 
very hard pressed for funds to carry on its expanding 
work, and it was simply impossible to set aside a Re- 
tiring Allowance Fund. The rapid passing of the 
years changed this, and on February 13, 191 2, the 
matured plan was adopted and made a statute of the 
University. Its provisions were most liberal, assuring 
to professors, associate and assistant professors an- 
nual allowances of from 1 1,000 to $3,000 after their 
retirement at the age of sixty-five or seventy. In 
1922 the plan was changed to a Contributory Retiring 
Allowance Plan, in accordance with which the Uni- 
versity contributed for the purchase of an annuity 
policy an amount equal to 5 per cent of the regular 
salary paid to the professor by the University up to a 
maximum amount of $300 per annum and the pro- 
fessor contributed an equal amount for the same pur- 
pose. This assured to the beneficiaries the possibility 
of a larger income after their retirement than the 
earlier plan provided. The first plan remained in force 
for all those appointed prior to the time the new plan 



^[ 189 ]4> 



was adopted. The retiring age was fixed in 1924 at 
sixty-five instead of seventy years. 

This is a quite inadequate record of the progress 
made by the University under President Judson. He 
was not allowed to retire when he reached seventy 
years of age, but was continued in office till he was 
seventy-three, when he resigned and brought his work 
to an end on February 20, 1923. 

In the President's Report for 1922-23 his successor 
in office, President Burton, after detailing the great 
advance that had been made in assets and in the an- 
nual attendance of students, went on to say: 

To these figures which only partially reflect the real progress 
of the University under President Judson's administration, there 
should be added as achievements of that period: a steady develop- 
ment of the work of research in various departments of the Uni- 
versity; a marked development of the libraries of the University, 
involving the increase of the staff from about 30 to about 100 and 
the increase of the books from about 400,000 to nearly 1,000,000; 
the conversion of the University Press from a burden on the fi- 
nancial resources of the University into a self-supporting institu- 
tion, without abatement, and indeed with increase, of its educa- 
tional value; and a marked improvement in the University's pro- 
vision for the physical and social welfare of the women students 
in connection with the erection of Ida Noyes Club House. 

After mentioning the great work looking to the estab- 
lishment of the Medical School and the adoption of 
the retiring allowance system, of both of which I have 
spoken, President Burton concluded as follows: 



<^[ 190 ]#► 



''Such a record of solid achievement furnishes both 
the foundation for a substantial advance and an im- 
perative challenge to make it." 

Dr. Judson continued his residence in Chicago 
after his retirement and was still known as Presi- 
dent Judson, the trustees having, by special vote, 
conferred on him the title of President Emeritus for 
life. 



XVI 

THE 'BUIL'DI^ACGS 0F TRESIT>ENT 
yUT>SON'S ^DMIJ^STRATIO:^C 



I HAVE told only a part of the story of the Uni- 
versity's progress under President Judson. Not 
the least important part of the story, that which 
tells of the buildings erected, remains to be recorded. 
The first building under President Judson was the 
Harper Memorial Library. The University had a 
great library to begin with, but twenty years passed 
before it had a library building. President Harper's 
anxiety for such a building was tragic. The intensity 
of his feeling on the subject may be judged from the 
following quotation from the Convocation statement 
of April I, 1899: 

There is another need the greatness of which I am entirely 
unable to express. In another part of the decaying building used 
for a gymnasium have been placed over two hundred and fifty 
thousand books and pamphlets Thousands of these vol- 
umes, if destroyed, could not be replaced. The building is so bad 
that every severe storm does injury through the roof to many 
volumes. If a fire were to break out, nothing could save these 
hundreds of thousands of books. I confess to you, I never retire 
for the night without the terrible dread that perhaps before morn- 
ing the library will have been destroyed. Pledging the friends of 
the University that as its president I will spare no pains to dis- 

M 191 ]^ 



<^[ 192 ]4> 



cover the benefactor who will thus lift from us this heavy load, I, 
nevertheless, here and now, wash my hands of all moral responsi- 
bility for a calamity the magnitude of which will only appear when 
it shall occur, which calamity may an all-generous Providence 
forbid. 

Recalling after his death that a library building was 
the thing nearest his heart, it was the most natural 
thing in the world that President Judson and the 
trustees promptly decided that the building so much 
desired by him must be erected as a special memorial 
of the University's first president. The trustees, the 
faculty, the alumni, the friends of the University, 
and the Founder all united in the project. The sub- 
scription was completed in January, 1909. The plans 
were drawn by Mr. Coolidge, the architect, and the 
contracts were let in January, 1910. Ground was 
broken on January 10, 1910. Quite unintentionally it 
thus happened that actual work on the Memorial Li- 
brary began on the fourth anniversary of the death 
of President Harper. The cornerstone was laid June 
14, 1 910. Addresses were made by Clement W. An- 
drews, librarian of the John Crerar Library, and by 
Professor Ernest D. Burton. The cornerstone was laid 
by Mrs. William Rainey Harper. The building was 
completed in June, 1 9 1 2, two years and five months after 
the breaking of the ground. The formal dedication oc- 
curred in connection with the June, 191 2, Convocation. 
There were more than 2,000 contributors. The 
final figures showed that the total amount of the fund 



^[ 193 ]^ 



was ^1^45,052. The cost of contruction and furnish- 
ing was 1815,506. Deducting some incidental ex- 
penses, $216,000 remained in the maintenance fund. 
The building was dedicated with elaborate cere- 
monies on June 10 and 11, 1912, in connection with 
the Eighty-third Convocation. The Library was de- 
scribed by the architect as giving the University an- 
other illustration of English Gothic architecture of 
the collegiate type, inspired by the examples of King's 
College Chapel at Cambridge, and Magdalen College 
and Christ Church at Oxford. The Library was not 
copied from any particular building, but the features 
of its design had their origin in the motives of those 
ancient buildings and it was wrought in that style of 
architecture to meet present-day needs. The build- 
ing was 262 feet in length and 81 feet wide. The 
towers were 135 feet in height and had seven floors. 
Inside the entrance of the West Tower was a bronze 
tablet given by the class of 1908, bearing the following 
inscription beneath the University coat-of-arms: 

TO HONOR THE MEMORY OF 

WILLIAM RAINEY HARPER 

First President of the University of Chicago 

BORN 1856 died 1906 

this building was erected 

By Gifts of the Founder of the University 

Members of the Board of Trustees 

Alumni, Students, and Other Friends 

a.d. 1912 



<^[ 194 ]4> 



Over the north central entrance the following inscrip- 
tion was carved: 

IN MEMORY OF 

WILLIAM RAINEY HARPER 

First President of 
" The University of Chicago 

On July 26, 1 910, Mr. Ryerson, who sixteen years 
before had built the Ryerson Physical Laboratory, in- 
formed the trustees that "on account of the progress 
of the science of physics, and because it was evident 
that the demands upon the laboratory space would 
soon exceed its capacity/' he proposed to make im- 
provements in the building and its equipment, and to 
erect and equip an annex. This annex was really a 
separate building and of a most attractive exterior. 
It was built in 1911-12. Its cost, which, with the im- 
provements in theoriginal building, amounted to about 
|2oo,ooo, was wholly met by Mr. Ryerson, and did 
not pass through the treasury of the University. The 
authorities did not ask Mr. Ryerson to provide this 
additional laboratory for Physics. It was built by 
him because of his intimate knowledge of the needs of 
the department and his deep interest in its work. The 
contract was let and work on the Annex was begun in 
September, 1 9 1 o. The Annex was located north of the 
main Laboratory with which it was connected on the 
first floor. It occupied 64 by 56 feet of ground area, 
with a basement and three floors. The construction 



^[ 195 ]^ 



was fireproof, and was designed to match and supple- 
ment the architectural features of the original Labora- 
tory. Great improvements were made in the latter. 
The first floor and basement were completely recon- 
structed. President Judson stated in his Annual Re- 
port for 1911-12 that by these improvements the 
available space for research work had been increased 
at least threefold. The Ryerson Annex was dedicated 
in connection with the exercises of the December, 
1913, Convocation, though it was finished and occu- 
pied before that date. The building was opened for 
inspection on the evening of December 19 during the 
Convocation reception and also on the morning of 
Convocation Day. The many visitors found much to 
excite their interest and wonder in the new equipment. 
Brief addresses were made by President Judson, 
Professor Michelson, head of the Department of 
Physics, and Mr. Ryerson, the donor of the building. 
I am not here telling the story of the inadequate 
accommodations the students of the University were 
compelled to put up with for their athletic contests — 
football, baseball, field events — for twenty years; but 
I must tell how the miserable facilities of all those 
years were finally replaced by the great wall around 
the twelve-acre athletic field and by the grandstand. 
It was on June 26, 191 2, that the plans for them were 
approved by the trustees. The grandstand was occu- 
pied in part on November 23, 191 2. On that day 



^[ 196 ]4> 



occurred the closing football game of the season, and 
the Chicago team celebrated the opening of the new 
stand by winning from Minnesota, by a score of 7 to o. 
But the stand was still far from being finished, and 
the wall around the field still farther from completion. 
The dedication did not take place till October 4, 19 13. 
This event was one of great interest to the entire Uni- 
versity, particularly to the students. The interest was 
increased by the fact that the dedication preceded the 
opening football game of the 1913 season. While the 
public was filling the stands a great procession of stu- 
dents, in which every class from 1896 to 191 7 was rep- 
resented, marched from Bartlett to reserved sections 
in the new stand. The trustees and many guests oc- 
cupied boxes in front of the grandstand. Brief ad- 
dresses were made by President Judson, who turned 
over the new equipment to the Department of Physi- 
cal Culture and Athletics, by Mr. Stagg, who received 
it for the Department, and by William Scott Bond, 
1897, who spoke for the alumni. Perhaps the real 
dedication was made by the football team, which won 
from Indiana 21 to 7, and, continuing its good work 
through the season, won the 1913 championship. 
The grandstand was in reality an immense building 
with an imposing and dignified front on Ellis Avenue. 
It conformed in general type to the other buildings. 
It was of reinforced concrete construction with a 
rough surface, the color being that of the Bedford 



M 197 ]^ 



stone of the University buildings. It had a seating 
capacity of about 8poo spectators. 

The entire field was surrounded by a reinforced 
concrete wall varying from 14 to 17 feet high as the 
grade of the streets required, connecting with the 
Frank Dickinson Bartlett Gymnasium. The wall was 
of the same type as the stand and about half a mile 
in length. There were numerous gates for entrance 
and exit. The entrance opposite Hull Court on Fifty- 
seventh Street had two round, flanking towers be- 
tween which was a large gate to be used for the en- 
trance of the student body, with a small gate on either 
side. These gates were the gift of the class of 191 2 
as the inscription over the central one records. Harold 
F. McCormick contributed the racquet courts at an 
expense of above $10,000. A gift of $5,000 from 
Frederick H. Rawson made possible the completion 
of the squash courts. By an additional expenditure of 
$19,511 the space under the grandstand was trans- 
formed, in the words of President Judson, into "a 
second commodious gymnasium." The cost of the 
grandstand and wall was $256,550. This sum, less 
the special gifts named above, has since been provided 
by the athletic receipts. 

The grandstand and wall, in addition to giving the 
liveliest satisfaction to the student body and provid- 
ing admirable facilities for athletic contests, immense- 
ly improved the University's external equipment. 



<^[ 198 ]4> 



In 1 9 14 a very large, one-story red brick, tempo- 
rary building was erected on the west side of Ellis 
Avenue between Fifty-seventh and Fifty-eighth 
streets as a laboratory for Pathology and Bacteriology, 
and eight years later, in 1922-23, the growth of the 
departments made it necessary to put up a similar 
building immediately south of it as a laboratory for 
Bacteriology and Hygiene. The cost of the two was a 
little over ^100,000. They are mentioned together be- 
cause both were named in honor of Howard Taylor 
Ricketts, a zealous and able scientific investigator of 
the University, the discoverer of the germ of typhus 
fever, one of the most important achievements in the 
history of medical research. That the scientific world 
recognizes his merit is shown by the fact that it has 
given to the bacillus of this dread disease the name of 
Rickettsia. His life was cut short by typhus fever con- 
tracted during his investigation of that disease in the 
City of Mexico in his fortieth year. The number of 
lives his discovery will save is beyond estimate. All 
the money that has been put into the University and 
all that ever will be put into it is as nothing in com- 
parison with the inestimable value of his discovery to 
our race. 

On August 12, 191 2, Julius Rosenwald wrote a 
very unusual kind of letter to the University trus- 
tees. He was himself a trustee and knew the situa- 
tion and its needs. The letter recited the "pressing 



<^[ 199 ]^ 



building requirements of the University" and to as- 
sist in meeting them said, "On this my fiftieth birth- 
day I take pleasure in offering you the sum of $250,- 
000." This gift was employed in providing a building 
for the departments of Geology and Geography, 
which had carried on their work for twenty years in 
the Walker Museum under very serious handicaps. 
Plans were prepared by Holabird and Roche, archi- 
tects; the building was located immediately west of, 
and connected with, the Walker Museum. The cor- 
nerstone was laid on Convocation Day, June 9, 1914. 
The dedication occurred in connection with the Spring 
Convocation, March 16, 191 5. Addresses were made 
by President Judson, Professor Chamberlin, Dean 
Salisbury, and seven former students in the depart- 
ments who had risen to positions of eminence, includ- 
ing the heads of the geological surveys of the states 
of Illinois, Minnesota, and Iowa and professors of 
geology at Harvard and at the state universities of 
Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and 
Illinois. Before the dedication the departments had 
requested the trustees to give Mr. Rosenwald's name 
to the hall. 

In concluding his dedicatory statement President 
Judson said: 

As President of the University and representing the board of 
trustees, I declare this building duly dedicated for all time to 
sound learning and to the advancement of knowledge, and its 



^[ 200 ]4> 



name shall be known throughout the years to come as the Julius 
Rosenwald Hall. 

The amount expended in the erection, equipment, and 
furnishing was ?30550oo. 

It will be recalled that Mrs. Elizabeth G. Kelly 
had contributed in 1892 and 1898 the funds for the 
building of the Kelly and Green dormitories. When 
she died in 1904 it was found that she had bequeathed 
to the University the sum of $150,000 to be used in 
providing a memorial of her husband, Hiram Kelly. 
As soon as the bequest was paid to the University, it 
was invested and the income annually added to the 
principal. The fund was eventually devoted to the 
erection of a building for the Classical departments. 
This hall was located on the northeast corner of Ellis 
Avenue and Fifty-ninth Street, south of, and con- 
nected with, Goodspeed Hall, and fronting on the 
Midway Plaisance. It was the westernmost of the 
proposed library group which was to occupy the en- 
tire Midway front from Ellis Avenue to University 
Avenue. Shepley, Rutan, and Coolidge prepared the 
plans and the cornerstone was laid June 9, 1914. The 
hall was dedicated on June 14, 191 5. Over the north 
entrance this inscription was placed: 

CLASSICS BUILDING 

Hiram Kelly 
Memorial 



4^[ 20I ]4> 



The building with its equipment and furnishings cost 
1285,448. 

Ida Noyes Hall, "to be used as a social center and 
gymnasium for the women of the University," was 
erected through the generosity of La Verne Noyes 
as a memorial of his wife who had died in 1912. The 
purpose of Mr. Noyes was communicated to the trus- 
tees in June, 1913. It was in consequence of confer- 
ences between President and Mrs. Judson and Mr. 
Noyes that the views of the donor were so enlarged 
that the proposed building grew in scope and size to 
what it finally became — the ideal woman's building. It 
was built in 1 9 1 5-1 6, and dedicated in connection with 
the Quarter Centennial Celebration of the University 
in June, 191 6. The architecture was Tudor-Gothic. 

Ida Noyes was not a single building, but a group of 
buildings, combining the facilities provided for the 
men by the Bartlett Gymnasium, the Reynolds Club 
House, and Hutchinson Commons. It was more 
domestic in feeling than the other buildings, giving 
the general effect of a great Tudor house. It was 
located on Fifty-ninth Street, between Woodlawn and 
Kimbark avenues, and had a frontage on the Mid- 
way Plaisance of 240 feet. From the middle of the 
main structure the gymnasium extended no feet to 
the north, making the total depth of the building 160 
feet. The structure for the swimming pool extended 
west from the north end of the gymnasium. For ad- 



^[ 202 ]4> 



ministrative purposes the Hall was divided into three 
departments, each with a separate head, the Com- 
mons, the Department of Physical Education, and 
the Clubhouse. All the privileges of the Clubhouse 
were open without fee to every University woman and 
it was the center of the social life of the women stu- 
dents and, indeed, of the University. The total at- 
tendance at scheduled events at the close of the period 
of which I am writing was about 50,000 a year while 
the daily or occasional visitors were innumerable. 

I have already referred to a gift of $300,000 by an 
anonymous donor for a Theology building. When the 
plans for this building were prepared, it was found 
that the extraordinary rise in the cost of building made 
the sum provided totally inadequate. It was in- 
vested, and the income added to the principal for 
several years. In 1924 another gift was added to the 
accumulated fund in the name of the original donor to 
enable the University to go forward with the building. 
Ground was broken for it, east of Cobb Hall and north 
of Haskell, in July, 1924, and the walls were going up 
as this was written. One of the most attractive build- 
ings on the campus, it faced Kent Chemical Labora- 
tory across the central quadrangle, and completed 
Harper Court. The Theology building belongs to the 
administrations of President Judson and President 
Burton, and was the last great building of the first 
third of a century of the University's story. .• 



XVII 

THE UJ^rERSITY'S U^N^FOLDING 
JJFE 

THIS story has been for the most part con- 
cerned with the external developments of the 
University's life. The ordinary university 
pursues the even tenor of its way without eventful 
or interesting incident in its inner educational life. 
But in the University of Chicago new things were con- 
stantly occurring within as well as outside the quad- 
rangles throughout its first third of a century. 

The educational work was committed entirely to 
the faculties. "It is clearly recognized," President 
Harper wrote, "that the trustees are responsible for 
the financial administration, but to the faculties be- 
longs to the fullest extent the care of educational ad- 
ministration." Beginning with this understanding, 
the relation between the board of trustees and the 
faculties was one of uninterrupted confidence and co- 
operation. Once a year the trustees gave a dinner to 
the professors, and this was made an occasion for the 
cultivation of acquaintance and the exchange of views 
in after-dinner speeches. 

The second year of instruction had hardly begun 
<^[ 203 ]4> 



<^[ 204 ]4> 



before the desire to be of service to the community 
began to seek expression among both students and 
professors. It quickly found this in the establishment 
of the University Settlement in the Stockyards dis- 
trict several miles distant. Miss Mary E. McDowell 
became the head; a board was organized, property se- 
cured, and a building erected. A University Settle- 
ment League of women was formed and the Settle- 
ment performed a constantly growing service for a 
great community. 

The principle of affiliation with other schools was 
notably illustrated in the history of the Divinity 
School. In 1894 the Disciples' Divinity House was es- 
tablished, and in 191 1 the theological work formerly 
done at Lombard College was organized at the Uni- 
versity as the Ryder (Universalist) House. The most 
noteworthy of these affiliations was that which in 191 5 
brought to the quadrangles the Chicago Theological 
Seminary, the western divinity school of the Con- 
gregationalists. The Seminary bought property ex- 
tending from University to Woodlawn Avenue along 
the north side of Fifty-eighth Street and in 1923-24 
built, on the Woodlawn Avenue corner, a commodious 
and attractive dormitory, the tower of which was 
named the Victor Fremont Lawson Tower, for the edi- 
tor and proprietor of the Chicago Daily News^YfYio was 
one of the large contributors to the cost of the building. 

I have already said that the University began with 




Harold H. Swift 



<#[ 205 ]#> 



a large library. It was made up of what was known as 
the Berlin collection, bought in that city in 1891, the 
library of the Divinity School, and that of the old 
University, which had been bought and given to the 
new one by John A. Reichelt. These collections aggre- 
gated more than 200,000 volumes. From the begin- 
ning, the University acted on the principle that one 
of the essentials of a university was books, more 
books, and still more books. Professor Ernest D. Bur- 
ton was appointed director of libraries in 19 10, and re- 
tained the office even after his promotion to the presi- 
dency in 1923. By that year the number of volumes in 
the libraries had increased to about 1,000,000, and the 
visits of students to the reading-rooms for reading, 
study, and books amounted annually to about 1,600,- 
000. The addition of buildings to the library group 
had become, by the end of the first third of a century, 
an imperative necessity. 

It will be recalled that President Harper dreamed 
of great graduate schools in which original investiga- 
tion should be pursued in many departments of knowl- 
edge, and which should do a great service to mankind. 
He was gravely assured that eastern graduates would 
not go West; that he would not live to see any consid- 
erable number of graduate students in Chicago, and 
one distinguished scholar said in print that to put a 
graduate school "in Chicago would be only the next 
thing to putting it in the Fiji Islands." All these 



<#[ 2o6 ]4> 



things only illustrate the foolishness of the wise. In- 
stead of establishing one graduate school, the Uni- 
versity organized two: the Graduate School of Arts 
and Literature, and the Ogden Graduate School of 
Science. There was also a graduate division of the 
Divinity School, and later came the graduate work of 
the School of Education, the School of Commerce and 
Administration, and the School of Social Service Ad- 
ministration. The enrolment in the first year, 1892- 
93, was 217. This grew steadily, and at the end of the 
first third of a century the students pursuing graduate 
courses in the University numbered 3,717 for the year 
1923-24. 

That the work of original investigation was pur- 
sued with eager devotion, conspicuous success, and 
high service to mankind is made evident by the dis- 
coveries of Ricketts, by the winning of the Nobel 
Prize by Michelson and Millikan, and by wonderful 
results accomplished by scores of other scholars which 
the limits of this story do not allow me to record. 

The fame of the graduate schools spread far and 
wide, and requests for teachers began to come in from 
universities, colleges, normal and high schools. These 
so increased from year to year, that in 1899 a board of 
recommendations for teachers was formed, the work 
of which assumed such proportions that it secured 
teaching positions annually for more than five hun- 
dred graduates of the University. 



<^[ 207 ]4> 



The number of students needing help in securing 
employment to enable them to continue their studies 
increased to such an extent that an employment 
bureau was organized, and, when this story was writ- 
ten, was finding outside work for more than two 
thousand students every year, as well as for many 
graduates and former students, the combined earn- 
ings of the two classes exceeding 1 160,000 a year. In 
addition to all this, student service was so extensively 
employed by the University itself that, in 1922-23, 
1,059 students were able to earn in this way $62,166. 

This story has had little to say thus far of athletics. 
But it would be quite incomplete if it failed to give 
some account of this important part of student life. 
Aside from the regular exercise required in the physi- 
cal culture department, much attention was given to 
athletics. Among the women students this included 
such activities as basketball, indoor and outdoor base- 
ball, hockey, skating, tennis, golf, rowing, fencing, 
running, and swimming. Among the men, instruction 
was given in swimming, wrestling, and fencing. Class, 
department, and fraternity teams were organized in 
many lines of competition. Teams for intercollegiate 
competition were trained in baseball, football, track 
and field athletics, basketball, swimming, wrestling, 
fencing, tennis, golf, cross-country running, and other 
sports. Basketball won its way to great popularity, 
but football was far and away the great game. Since 



^[ 208 ]#> 



basketball was taken up seriously in 1904 Chicago has 
won seven championships. In football which began 
earlier the teams were leaders in 1896, 1899, 1905, 
1907, 1908, 1 9 13, and 1924. The important football 
games often drew crowds of more than thirty thousand 
spectators^ the number being limited only by the seats 
provided. It was not the policy of the University, 
during its first third of a century, to emphasize foot- 
ball by providing such accommodations on Stagg 
Field as would invite immense concourses of people. 
These games awakened all the student enthusiasm. 
Great mass meetings were held, and new college yells 
practiced. The University may fairly be said to have 
divided honors with the best teams of the West, not 
only in football, but in all other games. Athletics 
and other student activities were under faculty con- 
trol. 

It was, however, the purpose of the University to 
make the students, as far as possible, self-governing 
bodies. It was greatly to the credit of the students 
that one of the first traditions they established was 
that the hazing and student riots which disgraced 
many institutions should have no place in Chicago. 
If newcomers tried to start anything of the sort, they 
were not only told by the authorities that they had 
brought their wares to the wrong market, but were 
promptly discouraged by the public opinion of the stu- 
dent body. To look after undergraduate affairs, stu- 



<^[ 209 ]4> 



dent councils were organized, which represented the 
students with the University in considering and act- 
ing upon affairs affecting the entire undergraduate 
body. In 1895 ^^^ ^^^^ student annual appeared, hap- 
pily named Cap and Gown. The Junior class assumed 
the responsibility of issuing the volume, which be- 
came a very fully illustrated publication of four or 
five hundred pages. In it the students gave their views 
of the contemporary history of the University, and it 
will be a mine of information to future historians on 
classes, clubs, fraternities, athletic, and social events. 

The student paper, the Weekly^ started at the very 
beginning, held on its way successfully for t^n years. 
The T)aily Maroon^ first appearing in October, 1902, 
was the continuation and successor of the Weekly^ 
and, with many ups and downs, went on its way to 
the end of the first third of a century with every pros- 
pect of continuance. In 1913 a new student publica- 
cation appeared, the Chicago Literary Monthly. In 
1 91 5 a Freshman paper made its appearance, the 
Green Cap^ taking its name from the color of the cap 
traditionally worn by the Freshmen. Later came the 
Phoenix^ and the Circle^ in which the literary instinct 
of the students found expression. 

One of the interesting things in the story of the 
University was the gradual growth of undergraduate 
sentiment against dishonesty in college work. This 
sentiment so increased that, in 19 13, the undergradu- 



<#[ 2IO ]# 



ates voted more than four to one in favor of the forma- 
tion of an Honor Commission. This Commission was 
a committee of students to investigate instances of 
cheating and recommend to the authorities penalties 
for the guilty. It was the hope of the students to cre- 
ate a sentiment against cheating which should render 
dishonesty impossible. Such were the beginnings of a 
noble tradition calling for high honor in all student 
relations with the University. 

One of the divisions most fully illustrating the Uni- 
versity's unfolding life was its business department. 
From very small beginnings it grew to great propor- 
tions. The first business manager was Major Henry 
A. Rust, who served from 1894 to 1903. The second 
was Wallace Heckman, whose term of service extend- 
ed through more than twenty-one years. Mr. Heck- 
man was an able and successful lawyer. In conduct- 
ing the business of the University he had the constant 
assistance of the wisest of advisers, Martin A. Ryer- 
son, the president of the board of trustees, of an 
able finance committee, of the University auditor, 
Trevor Arnett, and later of Mr. Arnett's able suc- 
cessor, Nathan C. Plimpton. I cannot speak too high- 
ly of the ability and success with which Mr. Heckman 
conducted the University's business interests. Under 
his administration the assets grew enormously, as told 
in this story, and the funds were not only well cared 
for, but so wisely invested that they increased in value. 



-i>f "-.i" "m' ^ 



:^'l«'5-.'-fn 






id1i|li;'|k ■;;:;::;] WW* 



Theology Building 



^[ 211 ]4> 



The business was handled by him so skilfully that the 
administration of the University's finances command- 
ed universal confidence. Mr. Heckman continued in 
ofiice till 1924, being retired on his own insistence. 

He was succeeded by Trevor Arnett, who began 
his term of service in August^ 1924. Mr. Arnett, after 
eighteen years' service as auditor of the University, 
had with great reluctance been surrendered to a very 
important service with the great benevolent founda- 
tions of Mr. Rockefeller in New York. On the retire- 
ment of Mr. Heckman, Mr. Arnett's services were 
felt to be so necessary to the University that, after 
much negotiation, he was made vice-president and 
business manager of the institution, and was in turn 
surrendered to it by the New York interests. He was 
the foremost expert on educational finance in the 
country, and had written for the General Education 
Board a widely circulated book on that subject. While 
he was auditor of the University it was a common 
occurrence for his office to be engaged in explaining 
to the business officers of colleges and universities the 
financial system of the University, and its methods of 
accounting. He was frequently called not only to col- 
leges, but to great universities, to assist the authori- 
ties in improving their business and accounting sys- 
tems. His work in New York had added to his ex- 
perience and knowledge, and he was welcomed back to 
the University with general acclaim. 



<^[ 212 ]4> 



The development of the University had resulted 
in the increase of its assets from $1,000,000 in 1891, 
to more than $53,000,000 in 1924. The officers of ad- 
ministration had increased to more than eighty, and 
the officers of instruction, above the rank of assistant, 
to more than six hundred. There were forty-four 
buildings, and a dozen more were imperatively needed. 
The twenty-three departments of instruction had 
developed into thirty-four in the colleges and gradu- 
ate schools, and there had come to be six profes- 
sional schools: those of Divinity, Law, Medicine, 
Education, Commerce and Administration, and So- 
cial Service Administration. 

In nothing has the University's development had 
more striking illustration than in the growing at- 
tendance of students. The attendance of the first 
year, 742, had increased, in 1903-4, to 4,580. In 
1916-17 it had become 10,448. Then came a halt. 
The world-war had involved the United States, and 
students from every college and university flocked in- 
to the army. The University laboratories were placed 
at the disposal of the government for purposes of re- 
search and experiment. Members of the faculties gave 
themselves to the service on battlefields in France 
and in every kind of patriotic service at home and 
abroad. Nearly or quite fivt thousand members of 
the University — students, alumni, and instructors 
— were in the service of the government. Nearly 



^[ 213 ]4> 



one hundred of them laid down their lives in the 
struggle. 

The war reduced the student attendance the first 
year from 10,448 to 9^32, and the second year to 
8,635, of whom 4,821 were women. With peace, prog- 
ress again began, and continued during the next five 
years at the rate of nearly a thousand new students a 
year. In 1923-24 the attendance had risen to 13,357. 

At that date more than 93,000 students had ma- 
triculated in the University and pursued studies for 
one or more quarters. Some of these came for the 
Summer Quarter, or for two or three summer quarters, 
and, having got what they came for, did not go on and 
secure degrees and thus become what are technically 
known as alumni. The University was organized to 
serve such students as well as to carry young people 
through a regular course to graduation and to higher 
degrees. They became loyal friends of the institution, 
felt themselves to be the children of the Alma Mater, 
and were cordially recognized as such. Thousands, of 
course, went on through the regular college course, 
and other thousands passed through the professional 
and graduate schools and won the higher degrees. 
And thus, while large numbers got what they entered 
the University for and left it without degrees, so many 
remained through years of study, that the numbers of 
the regular alumni increased amazingly, and in 1924 
exceeded seventeen thousand. 



^[ 214 ]4> 



While in the University the students developed a 
fine spirit of loyalty. This spirit manifested itself 
annually in class gifts of many kinds. The class gift 
became one of the traditions. The interest of the 
alumni in their Alma Mater led to the early organiza- 
tion of alumni clubs. Wherever they found them- 
selves in sufficient numbers they got together and 
organized, with the result that in 1924 there were 
fifty or more alumni clubs. I say "fifty or more" be- 
cause their number increases so fast that when this 
story reaches its first readers I cannot say how many 
there will be. They already exist in most of the states 
of the Union and in several foreign countries. 

The alumni early realized that they sustained a 
peculiar relation to the University. The statement of 
President Judson in the first number of the Alumni 
Magazine that "the real strength of a University de- 
pends in the long run on its body of alumni" echoed 
their own sentiment. The institution was still very 
young, and the alumni were very young also, when 
they began to feel that they should be represented on 
the managing board. It was true that three alumni 
of the first University were trustees, one of them, 
EU B. Felsenthal, '78, continuing through the entire 
period covered by this history. But this, gratifying 
though it was, did not wholly satisfy them. They 
wished to see someone graduated in their time from 
the new University made a trustee. This attitude 



<^[ 215 ]4> 



gratified the trustees. They felt that it indicated a 
living interest among the alumni in the University, 
of which they formed a great and rapidly increasing 
part. In 1914, therefore, Harold H. Swift, of the class 
of 1907, was elected a member of the board, the first 
of the new alumni to be made a trustee. Later Trevor 
Arnett, Dr. Wilber E. Post, Albert W. Sherer, Wil- 
liam Scott Bond, and Charles F. Axelson, all alumni of 
the University, were made trustees, and, on the retire- 
ment of Martin A. Ryerson from the presidency of the 
board in 1923, Mr. Swift was elected his successor. 

In 1909 the Alumni Council was organized to have 
charge of all matters which affected the alumni in 
general. The publication of a journal had already 
been begun. The first number of the Chicago Alumni 
Magazine appeared in March, 1907. It developed in 
1908 into the University of Chicago Magazine^ which 
being admirably conducted annually increased in in- 
terest, circulation, and influence. 

While the former students of the University were 
still young, as early, indeed, as 1914, they began to 
feel that they had financial responsibilities in con- 
nection with their Alma Mater, and on their own mo- 
tion began to raise funds for various causes connected 
with the University which particularly appealed to 
them: the magazine, scholarships, and other things. 
The University, in 1924, held $78,000 of these funds. 
The alumni had then come to be a great body, some 



^[ 2i6 ]4> 



of them representing large wealth. They were inter- 
ested in seeing the University go forward to a leading 
place among American institutions of learning, and 
gave promise of being among the foremost in promot- 
ing all future steps in advance. 



XVIII 

TRESIDEJ^ "BURTON ^:NiP THE 
D^W TROgRAM OF ADVAO^E 

j4 T A meeting of the board of trustees held 
/\ January 9, 1923, Dr. Ernest DeWitt Burton 
^ -^was unanimously elected acting president of 
the University, and began his duties on the day of 
President Judson's retirement, February 20 of that 
year. Dr. Burton had been head of the Department 
of New Testament and Early Christian Literature 
from the day the University opened, and for thirteen 
years had been also director of the University li- 
braries. He had twice served as acting president dur- 
ing absences of the president. He had been the inti- 
mate friend and adviser of both President Harper and 
President Judson and was perfectly acquainted with 
the history, traditions, and poHcies of the institution. 
A few days before entering on his duties as acting 
president, he had passed his sixty-seventh birthday, 
but he retained all the initiative, ambition, and en- 
ergy of a young man. President Swift, in reporting 
to the trustees Dr. Burton's acceptance, stated that 
the offer of the position "was made to him with the 
understanding that he will administer the office ag- 

^[ 217 ]4> 



<^[ 2i8 ]4> 



gressively," and that "the trustees are expecting him 
to initiate policies." 

The expectation of the trustees was not disap- 
pointed. He took hold of his duties so aggressively 
and began to unfold far-reaching policies so quickly 
that after the lapse of only six months, on July 12, 
1923, he was elected to the presidency. It was a curi- 
ous and striking fact that President Burton embodied 
in an eminent degree some of the most outstanding 
characteristics and qualities of both his predecessors. 
He had comprehensive views of what the University 
ought to be, the initiative to make the large plans 
demanded, and, it was believed, the determination 
and energy to push these plans to accomplishment. 
He had administrative abilities of a high order, and, 
while essentially progressive, had at the same time so 
much business intelligence and foresight as to make 
him a sane and safe leader. 

It was not strange, therefore, that on his appoint- 
ment as acting president an atmosphere of expect- 
ancy began to pervade the institution. He did not 
keep his public waiting. In his first convocation state- 
ment, delivered on March 20, just one month after 
his appointment, he said that the University's "task 
will involve an even stronger emphasis than has hith- 
erto been placed on research," and that "the spirit 
and practice of research ought to extend to every 
division of the University." Speaking of carrying out 







1| I 






fi+^'mwi 



-ir- 



k 






Mkdl^^^^smkm^ 







The Chapel 



^[ 219 ]4> 



the plans for the University Medical School, he said: 
"It is now agreed on all hands, as President Judson 
himself clearly saw and stated, that, whatever the 
difficulties in the way, the time has come for immedi- 
ate forward steps and rapid progress." He promised 
intensive and comprehensive study of the college 
problem that should result in giving new advantages 
to the undergraduates. He did more than state these 
plans and purposes. He immediately set about devis- 
ing ways and means for their accomplishment. 

In the two months following this first convocation 
statement, the acting president accomplished with 
ease what had been believed to be a very difficult, if 
not impossible, undertaking. For the sake of brevity 
I limit the account of this accomplishment to Acting 
President Burton's report of it in his second convoca- 
tion statement: 

At the request of the University, the Board of Education of 
the Northern Baptist Convention, the corporation which in 1889- 
90 founded the University, at its meeting in Atlantic City, May 
26, gave its consent to the revision of one of the original articles of 
incorporation of the University. This original article provided 
that at all times two-thirds of the trustees and also the president 
of the University should be members of regular Baptist churches. 

By the action of the Board of Education of the Northern 
Baptist Convention all restrictions on the choice of president will 
be removed, and the proportion of the trustees required to be 
Baptists will be changed from two-thirds to three-fifths, the total 
number of trustees being at the same time increased to twenty- 



^[ 220 ]4> 



five. It is a matter of great satisfaction to the University that 
this action was taken in a most friendly spirit, and that the rela- 
tions between the University and the corporation which founded 
it are, if possible, more cordial than ever. 

The election of Dr. Burton as president on July 12, 
1923, gave him new authority and increased freedom 
of action. One of his first acts was to fulfil his promise 
to institute measures for giving new advantages to 
the undergraduates. Professor E. H. Wilkins was 
made dean of the colleges, and the number of his 
assistant deans was increased from five to ten. The 
remuneration of the deans was increased, each one 
giving double the time and attention to the stu- 
dents assigned to him that had been given before. 
Thus the students were to have four times the at- 
tention and assistance from their deans that they had 
previously received. The deans came into more in- 
timate association with the students, giving them 
much needed advice in the choice and pursuit of their 
studies. They became advisers and helpers in the 
difficulties and needs of college young people outside 
the classroom. A new relation of understanding and 
sympathy and friendship between teacher and stu- 
dent was thus established, from which large advan- 
tage to the young men and women was confidently 
expected. To the brighter students who were ambi- 
tious to excel special attention and encouragement 
were given. All these things had two great results. 



<^[ 221 ]4> 



among others : the number of dismissals for poor work 
was greatly decreased, and the general standards of 
conduct and scholarship were higher than ever 
before. 

During the Winter and Spring quarters of 1924 a 
new, extensive, and interesting experiment was car- 
ried on. The better understanding between the teach- 
ing staff and the undergraduates resulted in the sub- 
mission, late in the Autumn Quarter of 1923, of some 
suggestions by the Senior class for improvement in 
college conditions. This was the quick student re- 
sponse to the new interest manifested in their welfare. 
The response of the instructors was immediate, and 
twenty-five faculty-student committees were organ- 
ized, each committee to study one particular problem. 
The collective work of these committees was called 
the **Better Yet Campaign," the purpose being that 
conditions of undergraduate life and work at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, already good, should by co-opera- 
tive faculty and student effort be made better yet. 
Among the results of the work of this campaign were 
the appointment of a director of publications and 
other student activities, the establishment of a club 
for non-fraternity men, the appointment of student 
representatives to the board of student organizations, 
and the reorganization of the Honor Commission. 
Still more important, however, than the specific 
recommendations resulting from this campaign, was 



<#[ 222 ]4> 



the establishment of a feeling of cordial acquaint- 
ance and good will between faculty and students. 

One of the interesting activities of the year was 
the scientific expedition to Santa Catalina Island, off 
the coast of Cahfornia, to observe the eclipse of the 
sun in September, 1923. This famous island was 
owned by William Wrigley, Jr., of Chicago. He gener- 
ously gave the site for a camp 1,300 feet above the sea, 
as well as the funds to meet the expense of the expedi- 
tion. Professor Frost of the Yerkes Observatory as- 
sembled in this camp, which was called Camp Wrig- 
ley, a staff of thirty-seven scientific men and women, 
including representatives of twenty-five astronomical 
observatories and colleges, and observations were con- 
ducted for several weeks. 

There were, altogether, in 1923, nineteen gifts for 
research in as many different lines of investigation, 
aggregating more than $145,000. It was in the same 
year that Professor Tufts and Trevor Arnett were 
made vice-presidents as a part of the new forward- 
looking program. Mr. Tufts was to have special re- 
sponsibility in education and Mr. Arnett in business, 
thus bringing the business administration into more 
intimate relation to the educational. A great step in 
advance was also taken in the practical disbanding 
of the Reynolds Club, and the opening of the club- 
house and its advantages to all the men students of 
the University without charge. 



#[ 223 ]^ 



These were some of the early accompUshments of 
President Burton's program of advance. They did not 
stand alone. As already told, additions to the fund 
for the erection of the Theology Building were quickly 
obtained, the contracts were let, construction started 
in July, 1924, and the work pushed rapidly forward. 
This building promised to be one of the most attrac- 
tive halls in the quadrangles. The organization of 
the Medical School was vigorously advanced. Im- 
portant members of the teaching staff were ap- 
pointed. Plans initiated under President Judson were 
carried to completion, and Rush Medical College was 
made an organic part of the University and one of 
the two divisions of the Medical School, continuing 
its work on the west side of the city in immediate 
contact with the great hospitals. On June 16, 1924, 
the 220 members of the faculty of Rush became mem- 
bers of the faculty of the University, and its students 
became students of the University. 

It will be recalled that in 191 7 Mr. and Mrs. 
Frederick H. Rawson gave the University $300,000 
for the building of a medical laboratory. President 
Burton pushed its erection so vigorously that work 
on it was begun in 1924, and as I write the Rawson 
Clinical Laboratory is going up on the site of the old 
Rush Medical College building on the corner of 
South Wood and Harrison streets. Dr. and Mrs. 
Norman Bridge contributed ? 100,000 to add a fifth 



^[ 224 ]4> 



story to the four stories originally contemplated, and 
this floor will house the Norman Bridge Laboratories 
of Pathology. The building was to cost about I50O5- 
000, and its foundations and walls were so solidly 
constructed that two stories might eventually be 
added to it to provide for the increasing needs of the 
Rush Postgraduate School. 

Meantime contracts were entered into with the 
Otho S. A. Sprague Memorial Institute, of which Pro- 
fessor H. Gideon Wells, of the University faculty, was 
the director, for close co-operation. By the contract 
with Rush and other associated contracts, the Uni- 
versity established co-operative relations with the 
Children's Memorial Hospital, the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital, the Home for Destitute Crippled Children, the 
County Home for Convalescent Children, the Central 
Free Dispensary, and the John McCormick Institute. 

While all these things were being accomplished 
the securing of additional funds was not neglected. 
New contributions and subscriptions for various pur- 
poses amounting to I5 28,5 50 were received in 1923-24. 

These concrete accomplishments of the first year 
of Dr. Burton's presidency were amazing, but they 
do not at all tell the story of that year. They were 
merely the foreshadowings, and in a measure the be- 
ginnings, of a great program of advance which, in 
connection with the trustees and the faculties. 
President Burton conceived and developed, and for 



<^[ 225 ]4> 



the achievement of which the preparatory steps were 
taken. When the responsibihties of the presidency 
were thrust upon him this question at once con- 
fronted Dr. Burton: "What is the task of the im- 
mediate future?" The more he considered this ques- 
tion, the greater grew his conception of the task be- 
fore the University. The conclusion on which presi- 
dent, trustees, and faculties came to an agreement 
was this: the great task of the University in the next 
sixteen years is to bring all our work, in all our de- 
partments and schools, up to the highest level of 
efficiency; more specifically, on the one hand, to give 
our students the best type of education which we can 
provide; and on the other, by research in every de- 
partment, to make the largest and most valuable 
contributions of which we are capable to human 
knowledge. 

It was felt that the notable administrations of 
President Harper and President Judson had prepared 
the way and created a demand for a period of which 
the keywords should be discovery and betterment — 
discovery of truth in every field, betterment of every 
phase of the University's work. When the president 
and trustees set themselves to the study of what this 
involved, they found themselves facing at the outset 
the imperative necessity of increasing the adminis- 
trative and teaching staffs, and of erecting additional 
buildings. 



<#[ 226 ]4> 



The loss of able and highly efficient professors 
painfully convinced them of a third need of the situa- 
tion. At the opening of the University in 1892, the 
policy of paying professors adequate salaries was 
adopted and for a number of years these were fully 
equal to, or a little higher than, those paid by the 
leading universities of the country. With the tre- 
mendous increase in the endowments of such institu- 
tions as Harvard, Yale, Columbia, and Princeton, 
and the liberal legislative provision made in recent 
years for some of the state universities, this condi- 
tion had been reversed. These institutions were now 
paying more adequate salaries than the University 
of Chicago was able to pay. To carry out the pro- 
gram of advance upon which the authorities had de- 
cided — to give to students the best type of education 
they could provide and, by research in every de- 
partment, to make the largest and best contributions 
to human knowledge of which the University was 
capable — to carry out this program in any complete 
way, the president and trustees found that the scale 
of salaries of the faculty must be advanced and made 
adequate to the changed conditions. These conditions, 
the higher salaries paid by other institutions, com- 
bined with the high cost of living, made this impera- 
tive. 

Emphasizing all this was the task immediately in 
hand of organizing and getting under way what was 



<^[ 227 ]4> 



intended to be one of the great medical schools of the 
world. Its buildings must be erected, and a faculty of 
the highest order must be secured. For the Billings 
Hospital and the Epstein Dispensary, to be built on 
the north side of the Midway Plaisance and west of 
Ellis Avenue, a large sum was already available, to- 
gether with the beginnings of an endowment fund. 
But great sums in addition were needed to carry out 
the building program and endow the work of instruc- 
tion. 

A careful survey of the twelve other divisions of 
the University revealed needs in all of them which 
were imperative if the program of advance which 
President Burton and the trustees had determined on 
was to be carried out. Athletics, to which I have given 
too Httle space in this book, offers an illustration. 
President Burton did not speak too strongly when he 
said, "Many a student has looked back on his college 
days with the feeling that athletics and Mr. Stagg 
did more for him than any other influence of his 
whole course." A general policy in regard to athletics 
was adopted. The first step to be taken was the erec- 
tion of a field house north of Bartlett Gymnasium, 
practically filling the space to Fifty-sixth Street. 
Later the grandstand was to be extended along Fifty- 
sixth Street, and later still in a continuous line down 
the east side of the field, making a U-shaped stand on 
the west, north, and east sides, with a seating capacity 



<^[ 228 ]#> 



in the permanent stands of 51,490. It was understood 
that temporary stands on the south side of the field 
would increase the seating capacity to nearly or quite 
65,000. This general program was to be inaugurated 
by taking immediate steps toward the erection of the 
field house, and carried forward as rapidly as financial 
considerations and the general interests of the Uni- 
versity made possible. These plans for athletics illus- 
trate the needs discovered in every division of the 
University. 

The general program of advance determined on 
contemplated nothing less than making the Univer- 
sity not necessarily bigger, but certainly better, not 
only than it is now, but than any University in the 
country now is; indeed, the best that human skill and 
intelligence and money could make it. I have neither 
the knowledge nor the space to present to my readers 
President Burton's vision of the University of Chi- 
cago that is to be. I am writing a story of the past, 
not prophetic visions of the future. But I can write 
of what is going on about me in the present. 

The walls of the Theology Building and of the 
Rawson Laboratory are going up. The plans are 
made for the erection of the Divinity Chapel, the 
Billings Hospital, the Epstein Dispensary and other 
medical buildings, the athletic field house, and the 
great University Chapel, "the central and dominant 
feature of the University group." These buildings are. 



i. , 1 



% 




Interior of the Chapel 



<#[ 229 ]4> 



however, only the beginning of the building program 
which has been determined on, to be carried forward 
as fast as the funds can be found. The building pro- 
gram, like the program of advance in general, looks 
forward to 1940 and beyond for its full realization. 

In his statement at the July, 1924, convocation 
President Burton, after presenting some of the reasons 
which had moved the trustees to attempt to realize 
this forward-looking program, said: 

The University recognizes that it faces an urgent demand for 
a great development of its work of education and research, and 
that this in turn calls for a large increase of financial resources. 
Thanks to the generous gifts of our eastern friends and of the 
citizens of Chicago, the University's total resources today amount 
to about $54,000,000. The studies of the last year make it un- 
mistakably clear that to enable the University of Chicago to make 
its contribution to the work of research and education which the 
universities of the country must undertake, to the resources which 
we now possess there ought to be added within the next ten or 
fifteen years an equal amount, and that no small fraction of it 
should come to us within the next two years. 

Further study of the immediate and urgent needs 
led the trustees to fix this "no small fraction" at 
117,500,000, and to organize and prosecute an effort 
to secure the subscription of this fund within the 
shortest possible time. The sum of $6,500,000, it was 
hoped, would be raised for further endowment of the 
work of instruction and administration, and ?i 1,000,- 
000 for buildings. The total of ? 17,500,000 for endow- 



4^[ 230 ]4> 



ment and buildings was a great sum, but great as 
it was it did not include the sums needed for the pro- 
gram marked out for the Medical Schools. 

To house this School at the quadrangles, the trus- 
tees set aside two blocks west of Ellis Avenue, fac- 
ing south on the Midway Plaisance, and proposed to 
cover them with buildings. By the vacation of Ingle- 
side Avenue these two blocks had been made one 
block containing about nine acres. It was planned 
to put about $4,000,000 immediately into hospitals, 
laboratories, and other medical buildings, and eventu- 
ally to devote the entire nine acres to the buildings of 
the Medical School. As it was proposed to make the 
Medical School second to none anywhere, it was un- 
derstood that other millions of dollars must be found 
for the endowment of this work. 

I have given a mere glimpse of the program of ad- 
vance worked out during the first twenty months 
of President Burton's administration. Perhaps, how- 
ever, it is enough to indicate how vast an undertak- 
ing the University was facing, and to reveal the ex- 
alted ideals that inspired it. The president and 
trustees had risen to that degree of heroism that led 
them to venture everything in a supreme effort to 
make the University of Chicago worthy of the Greater 
Chicago of which it was always to be a part, and of the 
ever increasing body of alumni which was the Greater 
University. 



^[ 231 ]4> 



That their faith was not without reason was soon 
made evident by a subscription of $2,000,000 from 
the General Education Board for endowment, condi- 
tioned on the raising of $4,000,000 more from others 
for the same purpose. The trustees showed their faith 
by their works in immediately subscribing about 
$1,700,000 themselves. This was quickly increased to 
$2,000,000 by smaller subscriptions from members 
of the faculty, alumni, and others for endowment and 
other purposes. A movement was organized among 
the alumni for a great offering from the former stu- 
dents. The new era had begun. 



INDEX 



Abernathy, Alonzo, 3 

Academic year, President Harper's 

arrangement of, 57, 58 
Alice Freeman Palmer Chimes, the, 

157 
Allowances for Widows, system of, 
188 

Alumni: contributions of, 215-16; 
magazine. See Chicago; mem- 
bership of, on board of trustees, 
214-15 

Alumni clubs, organization of, 214 

American Baptist Education So- 
ciety: approval of plans for Uni- 
versity, 17; conveyance of Uni- 
versity site, 2^\ organization of, 
10; withdrawal from University 
management, 1,6 

American Institute of Hebrew, 41 

American Journal of Semitic Lan- 
guages and Literatures, establish- 
ment of, 142 

American Journal of Sociology, 
establishment of, 142 

American Journal of Theology, 
establishment of, 142 

Anderson, Dr. Galusha, 3 

Andrews, Clement W., 192 

Andrews, President E. Benjamin, 
38 

Arena, the, 106 

Armour, J. Ogden, gift of, 184 

4*[ "^Z^ 



Arnett, Trevor, 210; appointment 
of, to vice-presidency, 222; re- 
turn of, 211 



Astronomy, expansion of Depart- 
ment of, 140-4I 

Astrophysical Journal, establish- 
ment of, 1 41-42 

Athenaeum Literary Society, or- 
ganization of, 107, 108 

Athletic field. See Stagg Field 

Athletics. See University of Chi- 
cago 

Attendance, first year of Univer- 
sity, 79 

Axelson, Charles F., 215 

Bacteriology and Hygiene labora- 
tory, erection of, 198 

Baker, William T., 74 

Baptist National Anniversaries, 
meeting of, 34 

Baptists, universal response of, 34 

Baptists of Chicago, appeal for 
funds to, 25 

Baptist Union Theological Semi- 
nary, I, vii; incorporation of, 
with University, 7, 65; opening 
and growth of, 5, 6, 7; permanent 
endowment of, 6 

Bartlett, A. C, gift of, 74, 157-58 

Bartlett, Frederick C, painting of 
murals, 159 



^[ 234 ]4> 



Baseball, beginnings of, at Uni- 
versity, 109-10 

Beecher, Mrs. Mary, gift of, 74, 96 

Beecher Hall, erection of, 96 

Belfield, H. H., 161 

Belfield Hall, erection of, 146, 161- 
62 

Better Yet Campaign, organiza- 
tion of, 221 

Biblical Worlds establishment of, 
142 

Billings, C. K. G., gift of, 184 

Billings, Dr. Frank, gift of, 184 

Blaine, Mrs. Emmons, gift of, 121, 
145, 160 

Blake, E. Nelson, ';i^^\ contribu- 
tions of, to Theological Semi- 
nary, 6 

Board of Student Organizations, 
221 

Board of trustees: alumni mem- 
bership on, 214-15; first, 2>S''> 
second meeting of, ■;}^e^. See also 
University of Chicago 

Bond, Mrs. Joseph, gift of, 185 

Bond, William Scott, 215 

Botanical Gazette y establishment of, 
142 

Botsford, Henry, 74 

Breasted, Professor James, contri- 
bution of Oriental Institute 
building, 186 

Bridge, Dr. and Mrs. Norman, gift 
of, 184, 223-24 

Bruce, Miss Catherine W., gifts 
of, 121, 136 



Buck, Carl D., appointment of, to 
faculty, 82 

Buckingham, E., 74 

Buildings. See University of Chi- 
cago 

Burroughs, Dr. J. C, presidency 
of, 2 

Burton, Ernest DeWitt: appoint- 
ed director of libraries, 205; ap- 
pointment to faculty, 86; ap- 
pointment to acting presidency, 
217; appointment to presidency, 
220; betterment program of, 225; 
long service of, 217; policies and 
aims, 218-19; President's Report 
of, 189; progress under, 219 ff.; 
quotation from, 229 

Business men of Chicago, appeal 
for funds to, 29 

Butler, Nathaniel, President Har- 
per's appointment of, 83 

Buttrick, Dr. Wallace, 49, 50 

Camp Wrigley, 222 

Cap and Gown, establishment of, 
209 

Central Free Dispensary, Univer- 
sity co-operation with, 224 

Certificate of Incorporation, grant- 
ing of, 3S 

Chamberlin, Thomas C, appoint- 
ment of, to faculty, 84, 85 

Chapel Assembly, the Commemo- 
rative, 103 

Charles Hitchcock Hall, erection 
of, 155 



^[ 235 ]4> 



Chicago: appeal to business men 
of, 29; fires of 1 871 and 1874, 
effect on first University, 3 

Chicago Alumni Magazine^ estab- 
lishment of, 215 

Chicago Commercial Club, gift of, 
121 

Chicago Evening Posij editorial 
help of, 72 

Chicago Institute, 143; incorpora- 
tion of, with University, 146 

Chicago Literary Monthly^ estab- 
lishment of, 290 

Chicago Theological Seminary, 
affiliation of, with University, 
204 

Chicago Woman's Club, women's- 
hall campaign of, 137 

Children's Memorial Hospital, 
University co-operation with, 
224 

Christian Union, organization of, 
106 

Circky establishment of, 209 

Civil War, effect of, on first Uni- 
versity, 2 

Classical Philology y establishment 
of, 143 

Classics Building, erection of, 200 

Classification of courses. President 
Harper's plan for, 58, 59 

Cobb, Henry Ives: engagement of, 
as architect, 90; gift of, 133 

Cobb, Silas B., gift of, 73, 93, 94 
Cobb Lecture Hall, erection of, 92- 
94 



College Committee, appointment 
of, 24 

College of Commerce and Admin- 
istration. See University of Chi- 
cago 

Commemorative Chapel Assembly 
the, 103 

Commentary on Amos and Hoseay 

173 

Commerce and Administration, 
graduate school of, 206 

Committee on Buildings and 
Grounds, appointment of, 89 

Contributory Retiring Allowances, 
plan of, 188 

Convocation, exercises of first, 
1 1 2-13 

Convocation Procession, institu- 
tion of, 112 

Coulter, John Merle, appointment 
of, to faculty, 86 

Counselman, Charles, 74 

County Home for Convalescent 
Children, University co-opera- 
tion with, 224 

Crane, Charles R., gift of, 184 

Crane, R. T., Jr., gift of, 184 

Culver, Miss Helen: gifts of, 120, 
121; presentation statement of, 

131 
Cutting, Starr W., appointment 
of, to faculty, 82 

Daily Maroon^ the, establishment 
of, 209 

Deans, increase in number for un- 
dergraduates, 220 



^[ 1^^ ]4> 



Decennial Celebration, 153, 170-73 
Decennial Publications, 171-72 
Departmental journals, President 
Harper's inauguration of, 141- 

43 
Dickerson, J. Spencer, ix 

Dilettante Club, the, organization 
of, 107 

Disciples' Divinity House, estab- 
lishment of, 204 

Divinity School, viii; dormitories, 
erection of, 92. See also Uni- 
versity of Chicago. 

Doctor of Laws degree, conferred 
on President Roosevelt, 1 59 

Doggett, Mrs. Kate Newell, pro- 
posed memorial to, 138 

Doolittle, Senator James R., 3 

Dormitories, erection of women's, 
96-97 

Douglas, Stephen A.: participa- 
tion of, in first University, i ff; 
presentation of tablet of, 170 

Douglas Hall, 5 

Elementary School Journal, estab- 
lishment of, 1 43 

Ellis Hall, assignment of, to men, 
162; erection of, 153 

Emmons Blaine Hall, erection of, 
146, 160 

Employment Bureau. See Uni- 
versity of Chicago 

English Gothic, style chosen for 
University buildings, 91 

Epstein, Mr. and Mrs. Max, gift 
of, 184 



Faculty: gathering of, by Presi- 
dent Harper 79 fF.; size of, at 
opening of University, 87, 88. 
See also University of Chicago 

Faunce, Dr. W. H. P., 168 

Felsenthal, Eli B., 214 

Field, Marshal, 72; gifts of, 67, 73, 
121 ; gift of land of, 30-32 

Football. See University of Chi- 
cago 

Foreman, Edwin G., 74 

Fortnightly Club, 137 

Foster, Mrs. Nancy S., gifts of, 73, 
97, 121 

Foster Hall, erection of, 97 

Frank Dickinson Bartlett Gym- 
nasium, erection of, 1 58 

Freshman Class, organization of, 
107 

Frost, Professor, scientific expedi- 
tion of, 222 

Gallup, Mrs. B. E., gift of, 121 

Gates, Rev. Frederick T., 122; 
account of Mr. Rockefeller's 
gift, 17-21; affiliation of, with 
Baptist Education Society, 10; 
appeal to the East, 28; confer- 
ence with Dr. Harper, 47; In- 
troduction to History of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, 11, I2; re- 
moval to Morgan Park, 24 

General Education Board, gifts of, 
184,231 

Geology and Geography, erection 
of building for, 199 

Getty, Henry H., 74 



<^[ 237 ]4> 



Glee Club, organization of, 107 
Goodspeed, George S., appoint- 
ment of, to faculty, 82 
Goodspeed, T. W., 36 
Graduate School of Arts and Liter- 
ature, organization of, 206 
Graduate students, growth in at- 
tendance of, 206 
Grandstand, dedication of new, 

196 
Great War, participation of Uni- 
versity members in, 212-23 
Greek-letter societies, organization 

of, 106 
Green, Andrew H., 69, 70 
Green Cap, the, establishment of, 

209 
Green Hall, Mrs. Kelly's gift of, 

137 
Grey, Charles F., gift of, 185 

Gurley,W. F. E., giftof, 121 

Gymnasium: men's, given by Mr. 
Bartlett, 157-58; temporary 
structure for, 94, 95 

Hale, George E., appointment of, 

to faculty, 140, 1 41 
Hale, William E., gift of Kenwood 

Observatory of, 135, 136 
Hale, William Gardner, President 

Harper's appointment of, 81 
Hamill, Ernest A., 74 
Hardy, F. A., gift of 185 

Harper, William Rainey, 3; accept- 
ance of presidency, 48, 49; ap- 



pointment to presidency, 36 ; con- 
ception of University's sphere, 
54, 55; affiliation with Theo- 
logical Seminary, 38; affiliation 
with Yale, 40, 4I; biographical 
sketch of, 37 ff.; conference with 
Dr. Gates, 47; death of, 174-75 ^ 
early movements toward presi- 
dency for, 43, 44; "educational 
experiments" of, 56-59; gather- 
ing of faculty, 79 ff.; Hebrew 
Summer School of, 39; illness of, 
172-74; labors of, during illness, 
173-74; letters of, to Dr. Good- 
speed, 14, 15; letter to Mr. 
Rockefeller, 46, 47; excerpts 
from letters of, 45, 46; organiza- 
tion plans of, 52, 53; plan for 
publishing departmental jour- 
nals, 61 ; prophecy of, 76; quota- 
tion from, 129; emphasis of, on 
original investigation, 60, 61; 
resignation from Theological 
Seminary, 13; statement of need 
for library, 191; Theological 
Seminary teaching of, 6; last 
writings of, 173-74 
Harper Memorial Library, archi- 
tectural plan of, 193; contribu- 
tion of funds for, 192; erection 
of, 191-93 
Haskell, Mrs. Caroline E., gifts 

of, 128, 129, 144 
Haskell, Frederick T., gift of, 

185 
Haskell, Oriental Museum, dedi- 
cation of, 128, 129 
Hebrew Summer School, creation 
of, by Dr. Harper, 39 



^[ 238 ]4> 



Heckman, Wallace, appointment 
to business managership, 210- 
1 1 ; real estate purchases of, 1 50- 
51 

Henderson, Charles R., appoint- 
ment of to faculty, 85 

Hibbard, J. G., gift of, 158 

Higinbotham, H. N., 74 

Hirsch, Emil G., appointment of, 
to faculty, 82 

Hitchcock, Mrs. Charles, gift of, 
122, 155 

Home for Destitute Crippled Chil- 
dren, University co-operation 
with, 224 

Honor Commission, organization 
of, 209-10 

Howard Taylor Ricketts Labora- 
tories, erection of, 198 

Hulbert, Dr. E. B., quotation 
from, 39 

Hull Biological Laboratories: gift 
for, 131-32; erection of, 132, 133 

Hutchinson, Charles L., gifts of, 
29,36,74, 121, 156 

Ida Noyes Hall: architectural plan 
of, 201-2 ; erection of, 202 

International Journal of Ethics^ 
establishment of, 143 

John McCormick Institute, Uni- 
versity co-operation with, 224 

Johnston, John W., gift of Obser- 
vatory site, 135 

Jones, David B., gift of, 185 

Jones, Thomas D., gift of, 185 



Journal of Geology^ establishment 
of, 142 

Journal of Political Economy^ es- 
tablishment of, 142 

Journal of Religion, establishment 
of, 143 

Judson, Harry Pratt, viii; appoint- 
ment of to acting presidency, 
177; appointment to presidency, 
177-78; appointment by Presi- 
dent Harper, 81 ; attendance 
during administration of, 187; 
progress under, 187-89; quota- 
tion from, 199-200; resignation 
of, 189 

Kaufman, N. M., gift of, 1 84 
Kelly, Mrs. Elizabeth, bequest of, 
201; other gifts of, 73, 96, 121, 
137 
Kelly Hall, erection of, 96 
Kent, Sidney A.; contribution of 
chemical laboratory, 73; other 
gifts of, 98, 99 
Kent Chemical Laboratory, erec- 
tion of, 98, 99 
Kohlsaat, H. H., 74 

Laing, Dean Gordon J., viii, ix 
Lake Geneva, Observatory site at, 

134-35 

Laughlin, J. Lawrence, appoint- 
ment by of. President Harper, 81 

Law Building: erection of, 1 59-60; 
need of funds for, 1 59 

Law School, See University of Chi- 
cago 

Lefens, T. J., 74 



#[ 239 ]^ 



Lexington Hall, erection of, for 

women, 162 
Logan, Frank G., gift of, 185 
Lombard College, transference of 

work of, 204 
Lorimer, Dr. George C, 3 

Mandel, Leon, gift of, 121, 156 

MacClintock, William D., appoint- 
ment of, to faculty, 82 

McCormick, Harold F., gift of, 1 56, 
197 

McDowell, Miss Mary E., 204 

MacLean, Mr. and Mrs. M. Had- 
don Harris and sons, gift of, 186 

MacLeish, Andrew, gift of, 185-86 

Medical School. See University 
of Chicago 

Michelson, A. A., appointment of, 
to faculty, 84 

Miller, Adolph C, appointment of, 
to faculty, 82 

Miller, Frank J., appointment of 
to faculty, 82 

Missionary Society, organization 
of, 107 

Mitchell, John J., gifts of, 74, 121, 
156 

Mitchell Tower, architectural de- 
sign of, 1 56 

Modem Philology y establishment 
of, 143 

Moore, E. Hastings, appointment 
of, to faculty, 83 

Morgan Park: enrolment of Acad- 
emy at, 104; proposals for a 



college in, 15; removal of Dr. 
Gates to, 24; removal of Theo- 
logical Seminary to, 5 
Morris, Edward, gift of, 1 84 
Moses, Professor Bernard, 168 
Moss, Dr. Lemuel, 3 

Moulton, Richard Green, appoint- 
ment of, to faculty, 82 

Nobel Prize, award of, to Univer- 
sity professors, 206 

Norman Bridge Laboratories of 
Pathology, 224 

Norman Wait Harris Memorial 
Foundation: establishment of, 
186; purpose of, 186 

Northrup, Dr. G. W., presidency 
of Theological Seminary, 6 

Noyes, La Verne, gifts of, 183-84, 
201 

Ogden, William B., 2 

Ogden Graduate School of Science, 
founding of, 69, 71, 206 

Old University: change of name 
to, 35; efforts of alumni of, 23' 
See also University of Chicago, 
first 

Oratorical Society, organization of, 
107 

Oriental Institute. See University 
of Chicago. 

Otho A. A. Sprague Memorial In- 
stitute, plan for co-operation 
with, 224 

Owen, W. B., 78 



^[ 240 ]4> 



Palmer, Alice Freeman, appoint- 
ment of, as dean, 85 

Panics of 1857 and 1873, effect of 
on first University, 2 

Parliamentary Law Club, organ- 
ization of, 107 

Pathology and Bacteriology labo- 
ratory, erection of, 198 

Paul, Ella (Mrs. William Rainey 
Harper), 37 

Peck, Clarence I., 74 

Peck, Ferdinand W., 74 

Philological Society, organization 
of, 106 

PhoeniXy establishment of, 209 

Plimpton, Nathan C, 210 

Post, Dr. Wilbur E., 215 

Power plant, given by Mr. Rocke- 
feller, 154 

President Emeritus, title of, con- 
ferred on President Judson, 190 

President's House, erection of, loi 

Press Building, given by Mr. 
Rockefeller, 154-55 

Priestly Element in the Old Testa- 
ment ^ They 173 

Professors. See University of Chi- 
cago 

Prophetic Element in the Old Testa- 
ment, They 174 

Publications. See University of 
Chicago 

Pullman, Mrs. George M., gift of, 
185 

Quadrangle Club: organization of, 
164; objects of, 164-65 



Quarter-Centennial Celebration, 
viii, 201 

Quinquennial Celebration, 168-69 

Rawson, Mr. and Mrs. Frederick 

H., gift of, 184, 197 
Rawson Clinical Laboratory, erec- 
tion of, 223-24 
Reichelt, John A., gift of, 205 
Religious Services, appropriation 

for, 169-70 
Remsen, Professor Ira, 86, 98 
Retiring Allowances, system of, 
188 

Reynolds, Joseph, gift of estate of, 
156 

Reynolds Club, removal of mem- 
bership charge for, 222 

Ricketts, Howard Taylor, work of, 
198 

Robinson, Ezekiel G., appointment 
of, to faculty, 82 

Rockefeller, John Davison, 40; 
contributions to Theological 
Seminary, 6; final letter of desig- 
nation of, 181-82; final gift of, 
179, letter of, 179-81, first visit 
of, 169; gifts of, 48, 65, 72, 114, 
115,117,119,120,124,125,127, 
178-79; gift of land, 179; gift of 
power plant, 153-54; gift of 
Press Building, 154-55; influ- 
ence of, 8, 9; letter of provisional 
gift, 22; letter to Dr. Harper, 
46; proposals of, for a university 
in Chicago, 15, 16; purchase of 
lands for University, 150-51; 
quotations from addresses of, 



^[ 241 ]4> 



169, 171 ; second visit of, 171 ; 
sum of total gifts of, 182; sus- 
tained support of University, 
124 

Rockefeller, John D., Jr., 125; es- 
tablishment of Oriental Insti- 
tute, 186 

Rockefeller Foundation, gift of, 1 84 

Roosevelt, Theodore, quotation 
from speech of, 159-60 

Rosenberger, Mr. and Mrs. Jesse 
L., gifts of, 144 

Rosenwald, Mr. and Mrs. Julius, 
gifts of, 184, 188-99 

Rosenwald Hall, erection of, 199; 
dedicatory statement of, 199, 
200 

Ruddock, Albert Billings and 
Charles H., gifts of, 1 84 

Rush Medical College: affiliation 
of, with University, 147; incor- 
poration of, with University, 223 

Rust, Major Henry A., 74, 210 

Ryder House, establishment of, 204 

Ryerson, Martin A, 2^, 89; gifts 

of, 73,. 99, 100, 114, 115, 121, 
184; gift of Annex laboratory, 

194-95 
Ryerson, Mrs. Martin A., gift of, 

137 
Ryerson Annex, erection of, 194-95 

Ryerson Physical Laboratory, erec- 
tion of, 99, 100 

Salisbury, Rollin D., appointment 

of, to faculty, 84, 85 
Santa Catalina Island, scientific 

expedition to, 222 



Scammon, Mrs. J. Y., gift of, 146 

School of Education. See Univer- 
sity of Chicago 

School Review, establishment of, 
142 

Shedd, John G., gift of, 185 

Sherer, Albert W., 215 

Shorey, Daniel L , 104 

Small, Dr. Albion W., appointment 

of, to facuhy, 82 
Smith, Byron L., 74 
Smith, Dr. George Adams, 168 
Smith, Dr. Justin A., ^6 
Snell, Mrs. Henrietta, gift of, 74, 

Snell Hall, erection of, 95, 96 
Social Service Administration, 

Graduate School of, 206 
Sophomore Class, organization of, 

107 
Sprague, A. A., 74 
Sprague, O. S. A., 74 
Stagg, Amos Alonzo, appointment 

of, to faculty, 82; early work of, 

108 
Stagg Field, gift of site for, 149 

Standard, the, co-operation of, in 
drive for funds, 26, 27, 28 

Standard Club, contribution of, 23 

Steigmeyer, quotations from 

"1893," no, 112 
Story of the University of Chicago, 

commission to write, viii, ix 

Strong, President A. H., 42; solici- 
tations of Mr. Rockefeller by, 10 



^[ 242 ]4> 



Structure of the Text of the Book of 

Ho sea. The, 173 
Student Publications, 209 
Student self-government, 208-10 
Students: early enrolment of, 77> 

78; Express Company, organiza" 

tion of, 107; Fund Society, 113. 

See also University of Chicago 
Summer Quarter: institution of, 

165-68; large attendance of, 

166-67 

Swift, Charles H., gift of, 184 
Swift, Mrs. G. F., gift of, 184 
Swift, Harold H., gift of, 184; 
trusteeship of, 215 

Talbot, Marion, appointment of, 
to faculty, 85, 86 

Tennis. See University of Chicago 

Theological Seminary. See Baptist 
Union Theological Seminary 

Theology Building, anonymous 
gift for, 185, 202; erection of, 202 

Thomson, A. D., gift of, 184 

Tower Group: architectural plan 
of, 156-57; donors of, 156; lay- 
ing of cornerstone of, 1 56 

Trend in Higher Education, The, 
173 

Tufts, James H., appointment of, 
to faculty, 82; to vice-presidency, 
222 

Undergraduates, new advantages 
given, 220-22 

Union Theological Seminary. See 
Baptist Union Theological Sem- 
inary 



University Chorus. See University 
of Chicago 

University College, development 
of, 145 

University College Association, or- 
ganization of, 107 
University Day, results of, 28 

University Extension World, estab- 
lishment of, 142 

University News, 106, 112 

University Preachers. See Uni- 
versity of Chicago 

University Record, establishment 
of, 142 

University Settlement. See Uni- 
versity of Chicago 

University Settlement League, or- 
ganization of, 204 

University Union, meeting of, no, 
III 

University of Chicago, vii; ac- 
complishments of first year, 1 13- 
14; early activities of, 106-7; 
adherence to President Harper's 
plans, 62; affiliation with Rush 
Medical College, 147; alumni 
activities of, 2i4ff.; annual ex- 
penses of, 1 1 8-1 9; architectural 
style chosen, 91; Articles of In- 
corporation, 65; athletic activi- 
ties of, 207-8; athletic field im- 
provements, 196-97; athletics, 
facilities planned for, 227-28; 
attendance growth at, 128; at- 
tendance during President Jud- 
son's administration, 187; begin- 
nings of athletics in, 108, 109, 
no; Biological laboratories, 



#[ 243 ]^ 



plans and erection of, 131, 23'^ 
board ot trustees, viii, ix; build- 
ing era of, 153 ff.; building plans 
for, 67; building problems of, 
89 fF.; buildings soon to be 
erected, 228-29; business de- 
partment of, 2IO-I2; campus, 
early state of, 104-5 ; Chapel, 
Mr. Rockefeller's provision for, 
181; Chorus, 107; Class of 1912, 
gift of, 187; College, develop- 
ment of, 145; College of Com- 
merce and Administration, es- 
tablishment of, 182; construc- 
tion of first buildings authorized, 
91 ; conveyance of land to, by 
Education Society, 36; co-opera- 
tive activities of, 224; courses, 
President Harper's classifica- 
tion of, 58, 59; Cycling Club, 
1 10; Decennial Celebration, 170- 
73; departmental expansion of, 
144 fF.; Department of Astron- 
omy, expansion of, 140-41; 
divisions, main of, 53-54; early 
enrolment of students in, 77- 
78; Employment Bureau, estab- 
lishment of, 207; expansion of, 
64, 65, 66; faculties, responsi- 
bilities placed upon, 203; faculty 
size of first, 104; first meeting of, 
88; financial difficulties of, 116 
fF.; financial needs of, 229; first, 
change of name of, 35; first, con- 
tributions of, 3, 4; first, history 
of, viii, I fF. first day of classes 
in, 102-3; fi^st year's attend- 
ance, 79; football team, first 
games of, 108; Glee Club, organ- 
ization of, 107; graduate schools. 



organization of, 206; High 
School, establishment of, 161; 
incorporation of Theological 
Seminary with, 65; increase in 
assets and departments of, 212; 
inner development of, 203 fF.; 
lands purchased for, 150-51; 
Law School, establishment of, 
148-49; Libraries, growth of, 
205; Medical School, contribu- 
tions for, 184-85; Medical 
School, President Harper's de- 
sire for, 147-48; Medical School, 
site for, 230; Oriental Institute, 
establishment of, 186; origins of, 
I fF.; policy of Junior College 
segregation, 162; Preachers, 170; 
President's House, erection of, 
10 1 ; Press, building for, given by 
Mr. Rockefeller, 154-55; Press, 
Decennial Publications of, 171 ; 
Press, educational ideals of, 143- 
44; professors, need for in- 
creased salaries for, 226; pub- 
lishing ideals of, 143-44; pur- 
chase of land, 55-67; Quarter- 
Centennial Celebration, 201; 
Quinquennial Celebration, 168- 
69; Religious Services, appro- 
priation for, 168-70; total re- 
sources of, 229; Retiring and 
Widows' Allowances, 188; Re- 
trenchment policy of, 125; revi- 
sion of original articles of, 21 9-20; 
School of Commerce and Ad- 
ministration, 206; School of Ed- 
ucation, 143-47; School of So- 
cial Service Administration, 
206; Settlement, establishment 
of, 204; early social life of, no- 



<^[ 244 ]4> 



II; student councils, organiza- 
tion of, 208-9; student partici- 
pation in administration, 221; 
student publications, 209; stu- 
dent self-government, 208-10; 
Summer Quarter, 165-66; Ten- 
nis Association, 109; additional 
undergraduate deans, 220; wom- 
en's attendance at, 136-37; 
women's building. See Ida 
Noyes Hall 

University of Chicago Magazine, 
establishment of, 215 

University of Chicago Weekly^ es- 
tablishment of, 106 

University of South Dakota, elec- 
tion of Dr. Harper to presidency 
of, 42 

Victor Fremont Lawson Tower, 
erection of, 204 

Vincent, Dean George, quotation 
from, 156 

Vincent, Dr. John H., 4I 

Volunteer Mission Band, organ- 
ization of, 107 

Von Hoist, Hermann E., appoint- 
ment of, to faculty; Convocation 
address of, 113 



Walker, George C, 85; gifts of, 

73,97 
Walker Museum, dedication of, 

97-98 
Walsh, John R., 74 
Weekly y The University , 209 
Welch, Professor William H., 133 
Wells, Professor H. Gideon, 224 
Whitman, Charles O., appoint- 
ment of, to faculty, 83, 84 
Wilkins, Professor E. H., appoint- 
ment as dean, 220 
Williams, Hobart W., gift of, 1 83 
Women students, increased attend- 
ance of, 136-37 
Women's residence halls, increased 

need for, 137 
World's Fair, opening of, 112 
Wrigley, Willliam Jr., gift of, 222: 

Yerkes, Charles T., gift of, 134; 
additional bequest of, 136 

Yerkes Observatory, formal pre- 
sentation of, 136 

Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, organization of, 107 

Young Women's Christian League, 
organization of, 107 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



Present Buildings 

' I I 

I Proposed or 

I Under Construction 



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